Topic One: The Irish in 19
C Canada: Class, Culture and Conf lict
About Violence in New-Brunswick against Irish immigrants and Protestant ‘orange’ Irish
-Inf lux of Ir ish catholic immigrants in the 1840’s.
-Previously, relations between catholic and protestant Irish in New Br unswick was
-Due to the large ar rival of Irish catholic immigrants in the 40’s (because of the pot ato
famine), many of them were poor and were willing to work menial jobs.
-In 1840’s, bec ause of new ‘free trade laws’ by Br itish government, foreign tariffs were
dropped and colonial duties were increased. This brought high unemployment in the colony.
-Commercial crippled period for Saint John and Portland from 1942-3 and 1945-9.
-This caused a lot of job competition between wealthier and more stable Protestants in
those areas and poor Catholics.
-Beginning of a perceived threat that Catholics would spread ‘evil of t he papacy’ and
wanted to block it.
-Encouraging of protestant businesses to only hire Protestants.
-‘Orange Order’ (protestants) grew and marched around in catholic areas, causing many
fights to break out and social order to be chaotic for periods where people would be
killed. Usually more casualties on Catholics side.
-About Saint-Patrick’s day parade in Toronto during 1800’s.
-Occur red primarily between 1840’s to 1870’s.
-Was means for Ir ish Catholics to express their ‘Ca tholicism’ and national pride.
-Bishop Lynch: Very pro Ir ish and catholic (can be seen as an extremist).
-Fenians: Extremists catholic Ir ish (popular especially in the USA) that were militant.
-Lynch praised Hibernians (who were Ir ish in Canada who were sympathetic to the Fenian
caused) but many Irish Catholics wor r ied his view (and the Hibernians) would alienate
protestant sympathizers from the Ir ish population at large in Toronto.
-Wor ry of a ‘Fenian invasion’ forced Bishop Lynch to denounc e the Hibernians, in that
they had ‘fallen away from catholic principles’.
-General encouragement amongst the Ir ish Catholics of Toronto that they should seek to
adopt the local culture and not alienate themselves.
-this general practice and involvement in political life and society would eventually
render St. Patrick’s day parade as basically unimportant and eventually would disappear in
the 1870s for more than a century.