Lecture 3: Migration from the British Isles, from 1800 to 1865

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13 Jan 2011
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Lecture 3: Migration from the British Isles, from 1800 to 1865
-Wartime Migration, 1800-1814
-Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) and the War of 1812: a Brake on Migration
-Exceptions
-Newfoundland's rapid settlement
-Scots in the Maritimes: Lord Selkirk and assisted immigration to PEI
-Upper Canada
-the "Late Loyalists"
-Mennonites: pacifists
-Glengarry: group/clan migrations
-considerable migration from the British Isles
-Upper Canada got the bulk of the settlers since 1791 along with the Maritimes
-a series of distinct British colonies, under a governor general
-divided into two waves of immigration
-wartime migration, 1800-1814
-period of great migration, 1814 -1860
-war time migration, 1800-1814
-wars in Europe, betw. Eng and Fr, the Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815)
-wars in N. America, War of 1812(-1814), betw. Eng and US
-substantial impact on immigration, by constraining it
-discouraged it due to dangers of transplantation across the Atlantic
-and war provided jobs at home
-immigration from US, ground to a halt during the War of 1812, unlike prior to
war with significant immigration
-in Newfoundland, fishers started to settle down, safer
-ppl from s. Ireland, and s. Eng
-went from 25 000-30 000
-Scots went to the Maritimes, about 8500
-settled along the coasts
-Scottish immigrants settled on PEI, cause of the assistance of the 5th Earl of
Selkirk, Thomas Douglas
-who was sad about the amount of suffering on estates
-from the Highland, ppl encouraged to move, conversion to
sheep farms, needed fewer labour, fewer opportunities
-used personal wealth to fund immigration of some
-was a Brit patriot, tried to encourage other landlords
-800 Scots arrived in PEI, under Selkirks patronage
-as farmers, didnt own the land, but rented, as the land had been
carved up already
-had paid for transport, and funds to settle down in early yrs
-great success, by 1810 this support no longer needed
-able to feed, clothe themselves
-though Selkirk unhappy that other
landlords did not follow
-latter on helped around Red
River, Manitoba
-cause of “chain migration”
-ppl encouraged to migrate as a result of
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hearing from ppl they know,
wrote letters of their success, esp. in the early
yrs
-chain migration to Upper Canada
-Late Loyalists, experienced farmers came for eco. opportunities, in significant numbers
-but cut short due to the War of 1812, and never really resumed after peace in
1814
-Mennonites, a group of German-speaking Protestants
-relatively small religious groups
-had settled in sig. no. in Pennsylvania
-about 2000 moved n. into Upper Canada, in response to ads by Sir John Simcoe,
first governor
-cause they were skilled farmers, wanted to attract them
-particularly attracted, due to trouble during the US Revolution, cause
they were pacifists, and sometimes pressured to fight
-Simcoe had said they would be allowed to be pacifists
-settled in Waterloo,
-since the 1800s attracted German speakers, chain migration of
both Mennonites and Germans
-ethnic and religious diversity
-Glengarry Scot Highlanders
-came as early 1785
-settled on the upper St. Lawrence area, in e. Ontario
-eventually 9 sailings/crossings
-worried about future prospects in Scotland
-as Scot underwent eco. change, were of middling ranks of society, sold
off their farm equipment, paid their own way on good ships
-wanted to recreate their life in Upper Canada
-succeeded, settled among relatives, kept their customs
-spoke Gaelic, diff. from most of English-speaking
neighbours, had own culture
-Great Migration
-huge exodus of ppl from Brit, from 1814-1860
-about 6 million left
-4 million went to the US, about 1 million went to N. Zealand and
Australia
-1.4 million came to Canada
-huge impact
-re-enforced Britishness
-farms everywhere
-38% chose Upper Canada, others scattered went s. of
Montreal (not settled), Maritimes, and
Newfoundland
-ups and downs
-1831-1836, a surge of Brit immigrants
-cut short by rebellion in 1837, scared ppl off
-resumed, esp. in the end of the 1840s
-cause of the Irish Potato Famine
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