Lecture 8: Defeat, DPs and Denazification, 1943-1947

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13 Jan 2011
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Lecture 8: Defeat, DPs and Denazification, 1943-1947
I.The Killing Fields: the Camps of Operation Reinhard
Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, April 1943
II.The Military Tide Turns
Stalingrad, Feb. 1943
The Bombing of German Cities
The Red Army Advances
D-Day in the West
III.The Death Marches
The Western Camps Expand
The Flight of the Expellees
What the Soldiers Found
Liberated But Not Free”
IV.Defeat in Berlin
V.The Potsdam Conference and the Four Zones
VI. DPs, Denazification and the Rubble Women”
-March 1942, 75% victims still alive, while March 1943, 75% were dead
-"the core of the Holocaust was an intense rage of mass murder," Christopher Brownning
-6 main camps: 6 death camps, of which 3 were extermination camps
-Chelmno (first to kill with gas in 1941), Treblinka, Sobibor, Maidanek, Belzec,
Auschwitz
-start killing systematically in a mass way in 1942, with gas
-numerous areas around Belzec, and Labline are swept and ppl are killed
-3 months later in nearly 100 000 are dead from Belzine
-after Polish Jews are dead, then the Czech, German Jews fill it up
-in operation for about a yr and 4 months
-killed a large number of Jews, Sinti, Roma
-then closed down, and traces are removed
-Belzec was the deadliest of the camp, only 2 survivors
-Sobibor, like other camps near urban areas, but set in the remote countryside
-only 50 survivors
-Nov. 1943, after revolts the camp was closed
-about 150 000-250 000 Jews dead, memorial in 1961
-Treblinka, built in spring 1942, outside of Warsaw
-Warsaw ghetto uprising, spring in 1943
-German attack of the ghetto was scheduled for Passover, and the taking of the
ghetto was street by street, great resistance to the SS, but failed, and all of
the inhabitants were killed
-17 000 communities destroyed
-as the mass exterminations are going on, as the Nazis reach their height in occupying Euro, high
point in 1943, also becomes the turning point in WWII
-Scandinavia, Vichy France, E. Euro. (puppet states), and in to USSR
-the military turning point of the war
-Battle of Stalingrad, from 1942-1943, by Feb. 2, 1943, German luck ran out, the
22 divisions of the 6th army were taken prisoner in Stalingrad as they
were encircled, the tide begins to turn
-cause of the war economy, army provisions
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