HIS377H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Mcgeorge Bundy, Cuban Revolution, Human Capital Flight

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Published on 8 Sep 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS377H1
HIS 377 – 20th Century American Foreign Relations
Lecture 8 Week 8
March 7th, 2013
Forging a Grand and Global Alliance: Kennedy and the “Ranks of the Free”
oKennedy and the New Frontier
oNational Security and Flexible Response
oModernization and Cold War
oThe Persistent Problems of Berlin and Cuba
oConclusion Building the Ranks of the Free
oKennedy and the New Frontier:
oEisenhower ends with a paradox – Americans are more stronger and
prosperous than we have ever been, yet they are more fearful than ever
oHe passes civil rights legislation, but he is not anti-racist
oWhen Kennedy becomes President, there is a change from a madman era to a
more liberal and hippy era
oDomestically, the US changes vastly – civil rights, women’s rights,
liberalization, etc
The Kennedy administration will not be afraid to meet these
challenges because they are a younger generation, the baby boom
generation
oThe 1960s invokes youth, vigour, vitality and confidence
oKennedy was only 43 years old at his inauguration
oKennedy was the first President born in the 20th century
oKennedy was also the first TV president
oKennedy was born into money and privilege, “whizkid”
oNixon was sick and clammy during the first televised debate – people who
listened to the debate thought Nixon won, but people who watched it said that
Kennedy had won
oFrom the very beginning Kennedy presented himself as the arbiter of the new
he wanted to appeal to younger Americans so long as they were willing to
do their part
oKennedy surrounded himself with an active team – Secretary of Defence
Robert McNamara and NSA McGeorge Bundy
oRobert McNamara:
Left a successful company to become Sec. of Def.
oMcGeorge Bundy:
Worked for the council of foreign relations – became the youngest
dean of the faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard at 34
oWalt Rostow:
Entered Yale at 16, finished his PhD at 24
Deputy NSA for Kennedy
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oAttorney General, Robert Kennedy:
oSecretary of State, Dean Rusk:
Kennedy believed he was slow
Theory that Kennedy picked him so that he could control foreign
policy himself
oVice President, Lyndon B. Johnson
Makes people feel uncomfortable
Kennedy picked Johnson to win over the south
oPresident John F. Kennedy:
Kennedy doesn’t care about domestics – he wanted to be a champion
of international relations – he is defined by his era of masculinity
It is Kennedy’s goal to project toughness and vigour
He believes America is becoming soft – everything is too easy now
He was obsessed with masculinity – he loved John Wayne, James
Bond, his operation to take down Castro was called operation
castration and he felt the need to stand up to Khrushchev
Kennedy hated indecisiveness
Kennedy brings gender into politics
oNational Security and Flexible Response:
oKhrushchev gives a propaganda speech after the Suez Crisis as it is seen as a
Soviet victory and gives them good press
oKennedy doesn’t believe in containment – he doesn’t think its an adequate
formula
oKennedy believes that you have to go forth and engage communism
oKennedy doesn’t believe in nuclear build up and mutually assured destruction
oKennedy wanted to show the Soviet Union that he was willing to fight if
provoked
oFlexible Response:
Increase in the nuclear arsenal
Increase in conventional forces
275 based in 31 countries by 1963
Increase use of Special Forces to deal with unconventional warfare -
counterinsurgency
Increase ICBMs from 60 to 400
oThere is a need to standardize NATO among all of its members
oSpace Race:
Operation Paperclip at the end of WW2 – took German scientists into
custody and used their ideas and knowledge – these scientists avoided
persecution for war crimes
US gets the V2 rocket which is the father of all rockets
Sputnik I and II are launched in 1957
NASA is created in 1958 and they pass the defence education act
The new goal becomes to get man into orbit
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Document Summary

His 377 20th century american foreign relations. Kennedy had won: from the very beginning kennedy presented himself as the arbiter of the new. He wanted to appeal to younger americans so long as they were willing to do their part. Robert mcnamara and nsa mcgeorge bundy: kennedy surrounded himself with an active team secretary of defence, robert mcnamara, mcgeorge bundy: Left a successful company to become sec. of def. Worked for the council of foreign relations became the youngest dean of the faculty of arts and sciences at harvard at 34: walt rostow: Entered yale at 16, finished his phd at 24. Deputy nsa for kennedy: attorney general, robert kennedy, secretary of state, dean rusk: Theory that kennedy picked him so that he could control foreign policy himself: vice president, lyndon b. johnson. Kennedy picked johnson to win over the south: president john f. kennedy:

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