TR managing the US Empire.
9.9.24 -- Teddy Roosevelt: World Police
How did America manage her empire?
US aquired formal empire due to the Spanish-American war, 1899, The Phillipines.
–Phillipines offered coaling station; military strongpoint; chance to civilize Philipinos.
–7,000 miles from US.
–led the revolution.
–thought himself the legit leader of the Phillipines.
–assumed, based on the Teller ammendmant which said the US wouldn’t take Cuba, that the P’s were
free as well.
The P. revolt lasted 4 years, 1899-1902. Gurilla warfare. 125,000 Americans fought, 200,000 P’s died.
Used tactics similar to that of the Spanish; scortched earth, killed civilians. Became a race war, Orientalism.
News reports came home of the American attrocities, and so new, more British India tactics were em-
ployed. Use a carrot rather than a stick.
Attempt to show that the P’s were backward.
The US saw what they were doing as a success. After all, gave them indipendence. Thought they were
blindness would lead to further travesties in Southeast Asia
Combined 19th century masculinity with intelligence and action. Rich background, well travelled. Ac-
tive in establishing a welfare state in the US. Bookish as a young man, but then began to exercise. Advocated
would succeed; Anglo-Saxons were strong, as they waged war well.
Had a subtle/pragmatic view of international relations. Had the same sense of militarism and social
responsibility that had been the mainstay of the Phillipines. WHITE MAN’s BURDEN. Believed that races
could progress, and that America could help to do this.
McKinnley was assasinated in Buffalo, TR becomes youngest president.
Very deliberate foreign policy.
When US warred w/ Spanish, attached Teller Amendment, saying US had no desire to annex Cuba. That said,
US not ready to give them self government. American policymakers didn’t think the Cubans could rule them-
selves; again, racial inferiority.
Instead, US tried to run Cuba informally. McCinly sent American governer to Cuba, tasked w/ making
Cuba a country that could rule itself.
America helps write a constitution, which included the Platt Ammendment.
The Platt Amendment
–keep foreign powers out.
–could allow a country to collect its debt by entering Cuban affairs.
–made Cuba look better to foriegn investors.
Cubans were furious, and refused to ratify. Cuba, however, sold most of its sugar to US. Using this
as leverage, Americans get Cubans to ratify constitution in 1903. Also, reciprocity agreement signed, uniting
American and Cuban economies.
Most wealth from reciprocity goes to a very few. Riots in Cuba. 1906, TR sends troops to Cuba to quell
riots. Sets a precident.
Russo-Jap War, 1904.
material assistance to one another.
TR concerned about a hegemon in Asia; wants balance of power.
Meanwhile, in California...
Root-Takahira Agreement, 1908.
Both sides see the other as racially inferior.
TR in LATIN AMERICA and the CARIBBEAN
US made treaty w/ Great Britain saying that any canal made in South America would be half British, but the US
got out of this during the Boer War.
offered to sell the rights to the US for $40 million, made Panama cheaper than Nicaragua.
Spooner Act gave TR right to set up canal, provided Colombia agreed. US offered Colombia
$10,000,000 plus rent. Colombia refused, and TR wasn’t happy.
TR caught wind of a Panamanian revolutionary; TR wanted to strike back at the Colombians. Philipe
Bunau-Varilla, a canal man, mercenary, and revolutionary, teamed up with William Cromwell, a lawyer, and
TR. Revolution in Panama. USS Nashville prevented Colombian military from sending troops to Panama to
stop the revolution.
time. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty.
the US. In the US, TR is considered a hero.
The Roosevelt Corollary
Addition to Monroe doctrine. TR said the US would act as a world police in order to prevent war in
Sets a dangerous precident for future American intervention.
obey foreign economic rules, non-millitant, no need for congress. RC: oppose revolutions, intervention, control
foriegn economy, requires military support, requires congress.
the ambiguity of the Presidency.
Where Teddy was geopolitical, Taft was economic, as was his Secretary of State, Philander C. Knox.