HIS377H1 Lecture Notes - Henry Kissinger, Ostpolitik

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Published on 14 Apr 2014
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March 20/2014
“The Shock of the Global”?: Grand Design and the Challenges of the 1970s.
Nixon, Kissinger, and the “Grand Design”
oNixon is a foreign policy president
oNixon knows that he is building up favors during this time, and this is how he is keeping up his
oAsia After Vietnam”
Article written by Nixon
Nixon comes across as fairly calm, unbigoted,
Nixon states that Asians are not that different from Americans and that they all have similar
desires and needs
He states however, that the United States is a specific power
Nixon believes that paying attention to the specific is crucial
Both Nixon and Kissinger believe that the world is at a turning point
They believe the united states is going to hell (decline-ism)
-they also believe that internationalism is crucial, they believe the US should not turn inward,
but should be more internationalist
how can the US manage the changes in the international system?
Nixon in this way becomes a bit of a Wilsonian
He understood that if you want to ensure an international system that abides by your
priorities, then you have to take control
The greatest need in the contemporary international system was order
oDid not like revolutionaries that wanted to disrupt the international order
oThey needed to get the great powers to stick together
To come together and agree on some rules
Defining the “Grand Design”
“Peace with Honor” and “Vietnamization”
Soviet-American Détente
Fixing the Economy
Opening relations with the PRC
Nixon was not soft on anything (communism, liberalism, nothing)
This is important because Nixon and Kissinger both believe that they are smarter than
everyone else
Believe that they can get away with things that other would not be able to do
They both consider themselves to be realists
Realist paradigm that states and diplomats are rational actors
oMoral considerations do not matter
oMake decisions based on power and maintaining power
Both Nixon and Kissinger don’t care about the rest of the world, believes that only
Japan, China, Russia and German matter
That means that for the rest of their allies they just do not have to rock the boat
oDo not get in the away of the primary relationship between US-USSR
Nixon Doctrine:
oKeep all treaty commitments
oProvide a shield if a nuclear power threatens the freedom of a nation allied with us
of a nation whose survival we consider vital to our security
oIn cases involving other types of aggression…. But we shall look to the nation
directly threatening to assume the primary responsibility of providing the
manpower for its defense
Defining Détente: Managing Soviet-American Relations
oDétente means a realization of tensions
They are not going to be friends, but merely just dialing down the crisis
oUS perspective:
Détente is a series of steps for managing the international system and mitigating American
American power and creditability is crucial in international stability
oSoviet perspective:
Brezhnev believes the soviet union is becoming weak
He has internal consent, he is afraid of the Chinese, he has a weak economy
A series of steps for managing the international system and mitigating soviet decline
Prestige and confidence-building
Basic treaty, 1973
Convince soviet union that it is in their best interests to help the US maintain global
You give the soviets a stake in the game
oWe are a great power, you are a great power, it is in no ones interest to have crisis,
lets calm this down
oThe US believes that the soviet union ferments revolutions around the world, and it
wants them to stop that
Basic Principles of Relations, May 1972
It says that since there is a threat of nuclear war, that the two powers (US-USSR)
should attempt to alleviate this threat
They should both do their best to promote peace
The soviets took it quite seriously, but the US however did not
The US more did it as a show of good faith
Arms Control and Non-proliferation
Nixon is the first president to go to Moscow
oMakes him look good
ABM treaty (biolistic missile treaty)
oAllows them to have 2 ABM site, each gets one to protect the capital, and another
to protect the NBM site
oThey also agree that they will stop improving on the ABM technology
oThey also agree not to shoot them into space
oThe treaty worked well until the US withdrew in 2001
Control of allies; status quo in the rest of the world
1973: A Complicated Year
oKennedy established affairs with Cuba during his term
oPresident of Chile is fear by America because he comes across as a Marxist
oThe US cuts of aid to Chile
oThey work to stop the flow of international aid
oOperation fubelt
Find someone in the Chile military to help start a coup
US spends 8 million $ undermining the Chilean government
1973- army attacks Chile president office
The Chile president commits suicide
Leads to a new regime
oOctober War, 1973
Egyptian PM Anwar El Sadat
Israeli PM Golda Meir
“Shuttle Diplomacy”
Geneva Conference, December 1973
Both the USSR and the US get involve in the 6 days war in Israel
Each side arms their ally
China, the Economy
oThe end of the American century?
oThe opening of china
oThe end of Bretton woods system and the 1970s
oThe unraveling of the Bretton Woods System and the Sinking US Dollar, 1960-70
Part One: The Gold Drain and Defending the Dollar: The Kennedy White House, 1960-1963
Part Two: The Situation Worsens and Supranational Solution: The Johnson White House
Part Three: The Predictable Unraveling of Bretton Woods: The Nixon Years 1969-1971
oFrom Intractable Enemies to Intimate Allies? China and the US (1949-1980)
Part One: Intractable Enemies, 1949-1963
Non-recognition and War: The Truman Years, 1949-1953
Cementing Disrespect, Hostility, and Brinkmanship: The Eisenhower and Dulles Years,
Conclusion: The Shock of the Global