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Lecture 4

Lecture 4.doc

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS388H1
Professor
Nathalie Fournier

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Third Republic was founded under terrible conditions
- Franco-Prussian War, Frankfurt Treaty, Paris Commune
- In many ways it was like the Weimer Republic
- Lasted 70 years, longest constitutional regime in French history
oWhy did it last so long
- Demise of French Monarchy, 16 of May Crisis, Boulanger Affair, Panama Scandal,
Dreyfus Affair
- It lasted long due to prosperity, after Paris commune left was badly weakened and
assimilated into new republic by general wave of prosperity
- After 1871, Paris became dominated by the bourgeois, though it used to be home of
left and revolution, became conservative city
- 2002 is the first time after that, that they didn’t elect right wing mayor
- There was monarchist majority in republic
oThis was due to chaotic nature of Republic
Voters voted for prominent local notables, which were generally
aristocrats
The monarchists were seen as the party of peace
- Levee en masse, mass conscription
- Monarchists fail because of weakness and incompetence, and diplomatic factors,
(influence of Bismarck)
- Adolph Thiers negotiated treaty of Frankfurt with Bismarck and became dominant
figure until 1873
- 1871-73 he enjoyed almost dictatorial power
oVeteran figure, popular for suppressing the commune, only French
statesman of international status to deal with Bismarck
Seen to be indispensible person
oHe rebuilt army, restored credit
- Weimer did everything it could to weasel out of reparations
- French paid the reparations ahead of schedule
oHelped revive confidence in French economy
- Thiers became a Republican, average minister of interior for Thiers lasted 4
months,
- The more successful he was the less necessary he was
- In 1873, monarchists in national assembly voted him out of power and replaced him
with Marshall MacMahon
- MacMahon was supposed to pave way for the restoration of the monarchy
oLeading contender was Bourbon, the Count of Chambord
Chambord was old and childless, when he died he would be
succeeded by Count de Paris – Orleanist
- Chambord was a rightwing reactionary
oHe wanted to fight war in Italy on behalf of pope, who lost Rome, the last
Papal state
oHe would only accept French Throne if old Bourbon flag would be restored
- Chambord alienated army by his flag issue but wanted them to fight for Pope
oHe however didn’t want to compromise
- Chambord was a miracle baby with ultra-rightwing education, believed in divine
right of kings, hated republic and Orleanist who were too liberal
- Because of flag issue, he ruined chances to restore the throne
oOnly other alternative was the Republic, this was end of monarchy and any
controversy of the monarchy being restored was gone
With this French Monarchy finally died
- Young Napoleon died fighting Zulu
- Monarchists were declining ship, discredited by Chambord, international situation
didn’t favour restoration of French Monarchy
oModerate Monarchists, Orleanists, got together with Moderate republicans
and made stop-gap constitution of 1875
This was barebones constitution, avoided ideology, human nature
2 houses, chamber of deputies, lower house, senate
7 year term for office of president
President was not elected by the people but by the national
assembly,
oAfraid that direct presidential elections could lead to
dictators
- The French ministers were responsible to president or national assembly?
- 16th May 1877 – MacMahon decided he could not work with parliament since it
was dominated by Republicans, so he dismissed it and ordered new elections
oDe Broglie was MacMahon’s president,
- 1877 was most bitter French Elections
oMonarchists wanted war in Italy, so Republicans were seen as party of
peace
oBismarck was in favour of Republicans due to his own kulturekampf
Also wanted to isolate France from other European monarchies
- Bismarck was so influential because he hinted threat of war
- Gambetta is better campaigner than MacMahon
- Republicans won 1877 election still in majority though little less
- 1877 could be regarded as true founding of Republic, became Republic ran by
republicans
- National Assembly emerged as dominant over president, president had to defer to
national assembly
- Chamber of Deputies can overthrow government and government lacked power to
call new elections
oAverage government of third republic would generally last only 9 months
Political parties were not strong, lacked power to discipline power
of chamber of deputies
- Since governments were short lived, reforms were slow
- Laissez-Faire economics had held the day
oNational Assembly was reluctant to pass laws helping the poor of France
- Radical Republicans – dominant figure was Georges Clemenceau
oWanted to introduce more progressive party system, wanted two party
system

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Description
Third Republic was founded under terrible conditions - Franco-Prussian War, Frankfurt Treaty, Paris Commune - In many ways it was like the Weimer Republic - Lasted 70 years, longest constitutional regime in French history o Why did it last so long - Demise of French Monarchy, 16 of May Crisis, Boulanger Affair, Panama Scandal, Dreyfus Affair - It lasted long due to prosperity, after Paris commune left was badly weakened and assimilated into new republic by general wave of prosperity - After 1871, Paris became dominated by the bourgeois, though it used to be home of left and revolution, became conservative city - 2002 is the first time after that, that they didn’t elect right wing mayor - There was monarchist majority in republic o This was due to chaotic nature of Republic  Voters voted for prominent local notables, which were generally aristocrats  The monarchists were seen as the party of peace - Levee en masse, mass conscription - Monarchists fail because of weakness and incompetence, and diplomatic factors, (influence of Bismarck) - Adolph Thiers negotiated treaty of Frankfurt with Bismarck and became dominant figure until 1873 - 1871-73 he enjoyed almost dictatorial power o Veteran figure, popular for suppressing the commune, only French statesman of international status to deal with Bismarck  Seen to be indispensible person o He rebuilt army, restored credit - Weimer did everything it could to weasel out of reparations - French paid the reparations ahead of schedule o Helped revive confidence in French economy - Thiers became a Republican, average minister of interior for Thiers lasted 4 months, - The more successful he was the less necessary he was - In 1873, monarchists in national assembly voted him out of power and replaced him with Marshall MacMahon - MacMahon was supposed to pave way for the restoration of the monarchy o Leading contender was Bourbon, the Count of Chambord  Chambord was old and childless, when he died he would be succeeded by Count de Paris – Orleanist - Chambord was a rightwing reactionary o He wanted to fight war in Italy on behalf of pope, who lost Rome, the last Papal state o He would only accept French Throne if old Bourbon flag would be restored - Chambord alienated army by his flag issue but wanted them to fight for Pope o He however didn’t want to compromise - Chambord was a miracle baby with ultra-rightwing education, believed in divine right of kings, hated republic and Orleanist who were too liberal - Because of flag issue, he ruined chances to restore the throne o Only other alternative was the Republic, this was end of monarchy and any controversy of the monarchy being restored was gone  With this French Monarchy finally died - Young Napoleon died fighting Zulu - Monarchists were declining ship, discredited by Chambord, international situation didn’t favour restoration of French Monarchy o Moderate Monarchists, Orleanists, got together with Moderate republicans and made stop-gap constitution of 1875  This was barebones constitution, avoided ideology, human nature  2 houses, chamber of deputies, lower house, senate  7 year term for office of president • President was not elected by the people but by the national assembly, o Afraid that direct presidential elections could lead to dictators - The French ministers were responsible to president or national assembly? th - 16 May 1877 – MacMahon decided he could not work with parliament since it was dominated by Republicans, so he dismissed it and ordered new elections o De Broglie was MacMahon’s president, - 1877 was most bitter French Elections o Monarchists wanted war in Italy, so Republicans were seen as party of peace o Bismarck was in favour of Republicans due to his own kulturekampf  Also wanted to isolate France from other European monarchies - Bismarck was so influential because he hinted threat of war - Gambetta is better campaigner than MacMahon - Republicans won 1877 election still in majority though little less - 1877 could be regarded as true founding of Republic, became Republic ran by republicans - National Assembly emerged as dominant over president, president had to defer to national assembly - Chamber of Deputies can overthrow government and government lacked power to call new elections o Average government of third republic would generally last only 9 months  Political parties were not strong, lacked power to discipline power of chamber of deputies - Since governments were short lived, reforms were slow - Laissez-Faire economics had held the day o National Assembly was reluctant to pass laws helping the poor of France - Radical Republicans – dominant figure was Georges Clemenceau o Wanted to introduce more progressive party system, wanted two party system  However, radicals never had power to fulfill this agenda and France was left with small minority parties - France appeared to be unstable but the country was more stable than the governments - There weren’t many extremists so government was centrist - Aristides Briand was always involved in cabinet shuffle - Government only had cabinet shuffle - Over time Republican values became more and more accepted through the people - Only minority of army members were sincerely Republicans o They preferred more authoritarian government - Bismarck encouraged France to expand overseas and solve their damaged French Pride o Also he wanted them to encounter problems with Great Britain as an imperial power - Relationship between Church and State, Napoleon Louis XVIII, Napoleon III had all favored the Catholic Church - Republicans inherited distrust of Bonapartism and with that inherited distrust of Church o Republicans were heirs of enlightenment - Serious divisions on the left - Moderate and radical republicans and socialists couldn’t agree on property rights, but they agreed that they hated the church, and thus the left found unity in hating the church - 1875-1885 int
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