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Lecture 12

Lecture 12.doc

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS388H1
Professor
Nathalie Fournier

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France and England did not want to see a unified Germany
- Mitterand chose Germany over Britain
oTrying to control them by investing in Center Democratic Party in Germany
oPut pressure on Kohl for new joint European currency to prevent currency
speculation
- Maastricht Agreement 1992 – led to transformation of European community into union and
adoption of Euro in 2002
- Under regulation of banks and overexposure led to financial crisis
oKerviel personally lost 5 billion Euros through personal trades
- Very difficult to have unified monetary policy for area with diverse traditions
- 6.6% unemployment rate in France
- National-Front initially led by Jean-Marie Le Pen now led by his daughter Marine
oClaim to represent true France
oStrong presence on extreme right, pulled between 10-18% of vote
oMain stream Gaullist Party UMP has to fight off this challenge from right, this has
led it to adopt racist rhetoric
Sarkozy has resorted to race bating
- Legal definition vs. Cultural definition of citizenship
- France is home to 5-7 million Muslims, 500,000-600,000 Jews
oFrance now has largest Jewish minority in Europe
oEvents in middle east have large impact on France
- La Francophonie – Pom Pipou
oMany African states joined
oAfter cold war ended, countries that joined Francophonie after Cold war were
Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, Armenia, Austria, Lithuania
Trying to rejoin Europe as a whole, and escape heritage of Iron Curtain
Good first step towards joining NATO and EU
- April 1994 – Rwanda was German colony given to Belgium after WWI
- 15% Tutsis 85% Hutus – Belgians installed Tutsis’ as leaders
oRwanda was part of Francophonie,
Preserved France’s status in post-colonial world as Great Power
Mitterond was afraid of Tutsis didn’t want Rwanda to become Tutsis land
Tutsi made up of RPF – highly motivated and better training than Hutus
Led by Paul Kagame
RPF military pressure led to power sharing agreement in Rwanda,
Arusha accords
- Assasniation of Habyarimana was catalyst to genocide which began 30 minutes later
o7% of population was killed in 100 days
oRPF attacked again to stop genocide
oFrance had greatest knowledge in Rwanda

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Description
France and England did not want to see a unified Germany - Mitterand chose Germany over Britain o Trying to control them by investing in Center Democratic Party in Germany o Put pressure on Kohl for new joint European currency to prevent currency speculation - Maastricht Agreement 1992 – led to transformation of European community into union and adoption of Euro in 2002 - Under regulation of banks and overexposure led to financial crisis o Kerviel personally lost 5 billion Euros through personal trades - Very difficult to have unified monetary policy for area with diverse traditions - 6.6% unemployment rate in France - National-Front initially led by Jean-Marie Le Pen now led by his daughter Marine o Claim to represent true France o Strong presence on extreme right, pulled between 10-18% of vote o Main stream Gaullist Party UMP has to fight off this challenge from right, this has led it to adopt racist rhetoric  Sarkozy has resorted to race bating - Legal definition vs. Cultural definition of citizenship - France is home to 5-7 million Muslims, 500,000-600,000 Jews o France now has largest Jewish minority in Europe o Events in middle eas
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