HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Mercantilism, Bicameralism, Feudalism

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Published on 31 Jul 2011
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
Jan. 10th, 2011
Napoleon
Only solution was war on a European scale
To the conservative leaders of Europe, the war against France was a kind of
crusade in which powers of monarchy, legitimacy, authority, & Church to
prosecute the root of all of their fears
Armies of revolutionary France left leaderless (aristocrats left the country),
soldiers left unpaid due to experiments
Armies divided by factual disputes, still able to halt the Prussian advance (won by
non-artillery officers)
French army managed to drive invaders from French soil; one of the heroes who
did so was Napoleon, a young artillery officer from Corsica
Coup that brought him to power occurred 10 years after the French Revolution
(revolution made possible his rise first in the military, & then to supreme power
in France)
Built on his strengths and reputation for being a battlefield genius
Crowned himself the Emperor of the French people (1804), & in exchange for
something distanced himself from the ancient dynasty
Saw his crown as not granted by god or the hereditary, but by a grateful people
Was right to an extent, celebrated for bringing stability by the French
All the enemies of France were defeated, and humiliated, & savaged by Napoleon
Only England was undefeated, Napoleon could not imagine war by sea (England
had superior seamanship, wanting to avoid confrontation led to his military
collapse)
Would have to control the English Channel in order to defeat Britain, instead
tried the continental system (1806/07) by blocking off England from its
mercantile activities and allies (containment & economic warfare)
Closing off the continent was almost impossible; smugglers moving from one place
to another, thus it could not actually happen
In an attempt to force the Russians into the continental system, Napoleon invaded
Russia; however they were defeated due to the extreme weather
1813: Napoleon led army to Germany and was defeated; he couldnt stall the
international allies
The Bourbon monarchy was restored, Napoleon sent into exile on an island off the
coast of Italy
Battle of Waterloo, 1815
Napoleon raised an army after returning to Paris from exile in Elba & moved to
attack the nearest allied forces stationed in Belgium
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Napoleon lasted 100 days before being defeated by a combined British & Prussian
army under the duke of Wellington
Made congress of Vienna more complicated, delayed negotiations
Napoleon in Control
Napoleon remembered as one of the greatest administrators in Europe, created
the face of modern France by using the ideals of the French Revolution
Coup of 1799: new form of the Republic was proclaimed with a constitution that
established a bicameral legislative assembly elected indirectly to reduce the role
of elections, executive power in the new government vested in the hands of 3
consuls
Napoleon was first consul & directly controlled the entire executive authority of
government
Code Napoleon, 1804: preserved most of the revolutionary gains, single set of
laws for France (France had 300 different sets of legal systems prior to the
revolution)
Region of Honour:
Created a French system of education, designed the lysee (reserved places for
those who were poor)
Wanted the talent that existed in France to be utilized, was a self-made man
himself
Economically, did not use the ideals of the Enlightenment
All decisions to be centralized, had to be central control of all aspects of French
life
Traditional mercantilist
Unable to galvanize the French economy
Made peace with the church which provided spiritual comfort for the émigs,
Catholicism not reestablished as the state religion, but rather recognized
Protected Jews, rid France of ghettos & integrated Jews into mainstream society
Armies destroyed the ancien regime in every country that they were notorious,
kings removed from thrones & replaced with republics (replaced republics with
kings, queens when he became emperor)
Napoleons Empire & Europes Response
Italians and Poles enjoyed a unified state under French protection
Other nations under French jubilation saw it as destroying their traditions;
nobility & clergy everywhere lost their special privileges
For example, the Spanish detested the French
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Document Summary

 only solution was war on a european scale.  to the conservative leaders of europe, the war against france was a kind of crusade in which powers of monarchy, legitimacy, authority, & church to prosecute the root of all of their fears.  armies of revolutionary france left leaderless (aristocrats left the country), soldiers left unpaid due to experiments.  armies divided by factual disputes, still able to halt the prussian advance (won by non-artillery officers)  french army managed to drive invaders from french soil; one of the heroes who did so was napoleon, a young artillery officer from corsica.  coup that brought him to power occurred 10 years after the french revolution (revolution made possible his rise first in the military, & then to supreme power in france)  built on his strengths and reputation for being a battlefield genius.