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HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Red Army, Proxy War, Atlantic Charter

Course Code
Kenneth Bartlett

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March 28th, 2011
World War Two
Scholars argue that it was inevitable, & both world wars constitute a single one
with a fragile truce in between
Allies in both wars were the same
Defeat of the Triple Alliance & the harsh terms of the Peace Treaty one of the
causes of WWII
War to make the world safe for democracy, end all other wars did neither
Unstable states created from the destruction of empires created states that were
also unnatural (no long traditions of independence, statesmanship)
Level of suffering of WWI drove many Europeans to believe that it would never
happen again, there were conferences held to try to reduce friction between states
Militarism fundamental reason why WWI broke out no armies, weapons = less
likely for war to break out
Locarno, 1925
Conference called by the German Weimar to try to reduce some of the tension
that seemed to be growing in Europe
Attempt on the part of the Germans by trying to make peace with the French to
try to reduce some of the tension on the international scene
Example of socialists & pacifists stabbing Germans in the back
Kellogg Briand Pact (Pact of Paris) 1928
Attempt to end war altogether by outlawing it
Nations were to sign on to the pact saying that all the peoples of the world would
reject war option for national policy, peaceful ways to solve problems
Almost every nation signed on, however it was nothing but wishful thinking
(moments in which war is a necessary option)
As long as everything is fine, the pact is fine, however as soon as there is a
problem war could be probable
League of Nations
Established after WWI, experiment in internationalism
Great place to talk, but not for action

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There were problems from the beginning in regards to structure (Italy, Germany,
& Bolshevik Russia not allowed to join until their behaviour allowed for them to
This exclusion provided opportunities to be outside the general norms of
European behaviour (Russia & Germany)
No sanctions available, no instrument to enforce any decision that they might
Diplomacy wasnt enough, wasnt sufficient to address the problems within
Europe between the wars
Spanish Civil War
Proxy war to WWII
After the decline of Spain in the late 17th-18th centuries, Spain began to
recede in the backwaters of Europe
Wealth concentrated in hands in wealthy landowners, elite paid little
attention to the needs of the people
This led to a revolution in 1931, abolished the monarchy
There was also a movement against the church
Inequalities had to be addressed, the concentration of wealth & power
Autonomy given to the Catalans (decentralization of Spain)
Indicated how polarized Europe had become, American industrialists
supported Franco, but individuals fought on the side of republicans (reaction
against Fascism)
Francisco Franco (d. 1975)
Challenged the elected socialist-communists
Group of army officers, those who had support for Fascist ideas
Fulange Spanish equivalent of Fascism
Defeated the republicans
After the Civil War, Spain chose to remain neutral during WWII
WWII cont.
New states slipped into dictatorships (easy-picking for the Fascists)
Crusade against Communism
Better to support Hitler than Stalin Many Europeans believed that they had to
choose a side
Fear of the Soviet Union was everywhere, especially amongst those who owned
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