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Lecture

Realignment of Europe / The Thirty Years War


Department
History
Course Code
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett

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HIS109
Nov. 1, 2010
Realignment of Europe
๎€Trade with Constantinople (continuation with the roman empire) contact with
the sophisticated money economies of the Islamic world
๎€Stimulated political and economic change
๎€Financial mechanisms (shipbuilding, navigation, insurance) made the states of
Italy rich giving rise to the experimentation of society during the Renaissance
๎€Series of events shattered this for Italy
๎€1553: Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks; Islamic Turks grew to be the
most powerful state in Europe
๎€Natural result of the Ottoman victory was war, occasioned by politics, economics,
and religion
๎€For the first century, the Christians were unable to stop the spread of Islam in
the West
๎€Trade was taken along with territory (Genoese Empire in the East taken down)
Mohammed II
๎€Sent a fleet to conquer the peninsula that sticks out of Italy (what will happen
to the rest of Christendom on the continent)
๎€Convert to Islam or be killed
๎€Terror on the Italian peninsula terrified Christians; they didnโ€™t know what to do
๎€Seemed as if the Ottomans would drive all Christian forces & settlements out of
the Mediterranean
๎€Islamic Empire spread an arc from the Balkans to the coast of North Africa
๎€Ottomans seemingly invincible
๎€Christians were terrified; in the context of this world they felt as if God was
punishing them
Suleiman the Magnificent
๎€After establishing control over the southern Mediterranean began to move to
central and eastern Europe
๎€Battle of Mohacs (1526): annihilation of the Christian army, there was now
nothing to stop the Turks
๎€Set siege to Vienna; siege was eventually broken
๎€Matter of time before the army would regroup
๎€Turks set up a portable outside of Vienna
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๎€Once they abandon this city, they set fire to it so that the Christians could not
benefit from it โ€“ this led to the introduction of coffee to Europe after the fire
emits the scent of coffee beans
Shift in Power
๎€The shift of economic, political power to eastern seaboard not an accident
๎€Turks forever destroyed sea trade between Europe and the eastern seaboard,
which was once the industry of the Italians
๎€The Christians lost the benefits that had once created so much wealth
๎€Drove military powers to look beyond the Mediterranean towards the Atlantic
๎€Required different routes to the East; had to get to the place that sold the goods
the Christians needed
๎€Going through the Mediterranean was too risky
๎€Henry the navigator (king of Portugal) hoped to discover a lost Christian
community in central Africa (this was a myth)
๎€Portuguese reach the tip of Africa, the Romans never went beyond Saharan
Africa
๎€1496: Vasco de Gama sailed around Africa to trade with India
๎€Ability to sail from the Atlantic seaboard to the east meant that the Portuguese
had an advantage
๎€The trade that made the Mediterranean so rich shifted to the world of the
Atlantic, the Portuguese and Spanish
๎€Before 1479 Spain was fragmented into petty warring kingdoms, shared
peninsula with the Portuguese and Islamic peoples
๎€Spain splits into two kingdoms: Castile and Aragon (both share Catholicism)
๎€Crusades in Spain successful, the Moors were driven out of Granada
Spanish Inquisition
๎€Spanish Inquisition was given enormous authority because of the need to root
out heresy, Islam, and Judaism on the continent
๎€Renewed Catholic zeal
๎€Was a political decision that would unite a previously fragmented peninsula
๎€The hatred of the Turks was so great that these were acts of Christian
allegiance
๎€This idea of Christendom seemed to be so focused in Spain that it overwhelmed
all other traditions
๎€Economic balance of power shift from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic
seaboard
๎€Victories of the new world to be victories of Christendom
๎€Empire of Spain became enormously powerful and rich
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