HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Scientific Revolution, Fronde, Cultural Imperialism

20 views6 pages
Published on 31 Jul 2011
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
HIS109
Nov. 15th, 2010
The Absolute State
Absolute: free from any restriction that may reduce ones power to act; power to
do absolutely anything w/o the interference of anyone
Created a difficult world for a large number of people
Easier to serve a single man; king protected you from the other agencies that
would rob you (wanted everything for himself)
Having a powerful central government protected the country from foreign
intervention; people were willing to make sacrifices for protection
Reduced the incidences of civil war
Ideological Elements
Practical response to problems, as well as a theoretical justification that was good
in itself
Thomas Hobbes:
Wrote during the English wars, was a Royalist but rejected all the arguments
made by Charles before his execution (said he was only answerable to God b/c God
made him King)
Proposed a secular notion of kingship
Men and women lived in a state of nature in the beginning in which the strong
preyed upon the weak (this served the immediate interests of the strong, this was
an age of torment and misery)
How could one escape this? Only possible recourse was to join together and
create a group in which laws applied equally to everyone by building a society.
These people had to have a ruler in which they would give up their rights in
return for protection and government.
Unrestricted, absolute power of the king was a gift from the people themselves,
and this contract remained forever
Having a tyrannical king was simply a misfortune; nothing could be done because
a contract was made
There must be reasons for a kings tyranny because he sees issues that you may
not, the protection of the whole more important than the individual
No point in challenging the king, because there was no other alternative other
than going back to a brutish state of nature (theory of absolutism)
Absolutism came together under Richelieu, but even more so under Louis XIV
Louis XIV
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
France became an absolute state
France was initially governed by a regency council headed by Mazarin (chosen by
Richelieu) because Louis came to power very young
J. Mazarin was very tolerant of the Protestants, reinforced the Edict of Nantes,
was hated by the great nobles because he wasnt of noble birth and was Italian
Fronde
Mazarin suggested that the Louis XIV become his own first minister and rely on
no one but him self
Louis became his own first minister, but needed servants who could actually
deliver such as J.B Colbert (worked his way up from the middle class, caught
Mazarins attention)
Louis began to use Colbert and made him the superintendent of the kings
finances, in which he did a very good job
Colbert did not have the advantage of being born into a noble family
Was unable to restructure Frances taxes however
Complained about the extravagance of the palace of Versailles, but nevertheless
found money to fund it
Colbert centralized the government in such a way as to make the king the center
of the kingdom, French culture, etc.
After 1683 (Colberts death) led to the beginning of a decline, Louis’ reign no
longer successful
Everything had to pass through a tariff system, and everything had to be taxed;
this strangled any entrepreneurial sense
Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, was convinced that there should only be a
single religion in France
Protestants driven out of France, brought their abilities to the nations that were
at war with France
Louis decided to invade Germany, this made Europe realize how dangerous
France was under Louis XIV was
The invasion was made worse because of the actions of the French army that
treated the Germans horribly
Grand Alliance was created (England, Spain, Holland, all of Europe allied against
France)
The French still won battles on land; France began to run out of money and men
to fight in these wars
Chaos ensued in France, for example soldiers were tired of fighting, and Louis
had no choice but to make peace the country could no longer sustain Louis’
ambitions
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in