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HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - False Document, Guelphs And Ghibellines, Heresy

Course Code
Kenneth Bartlett

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Date: September 26, 2012
The Church
Roman Catholic Church – owned estates and land → power
700-850 – false document composed by monks – Emperor Constantine suffered from
leprosy and on his deathbed converted to Christianity → transferred the power over realm
to the Pope → has the authority of the Emperor and spiritual power
dual sovereignty → tension between Pope (clergy) and Emperors (nobility)
Italy → two factions: Guelphs (Pope) and Ghibellines (Holy Roman Emperor)
Charlemagne (d.814):
ofirst Emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire four
centuries earlier
o800 AD - crowned as Roman Catholic Emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas
Day → power given by the Pope, could be taken away by the Pope
othrough his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne encouraged the
formation of a common European identity
Early decades of 13th century – Pope has fullness of power/ claims Plenitudo potestatis:
ocentralization of church
ojurisdictional power
osecular affairs
Church’s income ← taxes (as landowners), clerical fees (marriage, baptism, funereal,
etc), indulgence, legal fees
Law – church courts – standard means of procedure; fair judgment
local courts – clearly biased
Central taxation system – collecting money not only from bishops, abbots, and cardinals,
but also from all clergy (village priests and monks)
started as a cause for “Holy War” → 1/40th of income turned into 10% of all income
canon law – all churches and their possessions belong to the
1335 – new law – Pope can interfere in the elections of bishops and cardinals; young
theology graduates and clerics start sending letters to Rome, asking to be appointed to
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