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HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Maximilien Robespierre, Tyrant, French Revolutionary Army

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Anthony Cantor

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The French Revolution Part 2
Maximilien Robespierre
Ultramontane’s vs. Galileans
Napoleon Bonaparte
1789, 26th of August, the declaration of the Rights of Man was set in place
o Read as if it was written by a philosoph; the law is the power of the general will. Liberty.
Essentially, what we value today.
o Heavily influenced by Montesquieu and Rousseau and indirectly by John Locke
The Financial Crisis
The lands of the church were to be confiscated; the second of November
The national assembly continued to print more money than the value of the church lands. They
reduced the value of the dollar and the effects of inflation made it worthless
The rich got richer and the poor got poorer
Laws were passed and any form of working class revolt was illegal
Confiscation of church lands split the nation in half
French church was to be completely independent and nothing but another branch of the state
the result of forcing Frenchman to chose between religion and state? Divided France
o the jurors, those who swore to the civil constitution
o the non jurors, those who didn’t swear to the civil constitution
o about half
the division wasn’t just with the church, it was between the radical elements that wanted to build
a new society based on pure rationalist ideas (opposed to the idea of an establish church) and
those who were more conservative
to be a juror was in the eyes of the conservatives was against everything in terms of religion.
Constitution of 1791
turned France into a constitutional monarchy
the middle class was put in place
the separation of powers;
the king represented the executive.
His acts had to be approved by his ministers and his veto could only be in place
for four years
Could hold legislation through two assemblies
The judiciary
The judges were elected
Completely restructured from a feudal system to what we know today
The country was divided into 83 departments,
Each divided into districts
Then divided into ___
Frenchmen were not equal politically under the new constitution
Divided between passive citizens and active citizens
only active citizens (paid enough tax) could vote and hold public office
About half of the adult males
A victory for the private owning, anti clerical, middle class
Dominated the national assembly,
The king felt that there wasn’t enough power to the king, and wasn’t happy about the lack of
power from church
The king attempted to leave France with his family to join his brother, but he was
Didn’t have a chance and couldn’t succeed.
Crushed by faction and war
Creation of the political spectrum (left, right, and center)
On the left of the left: the Jacobins
Storming of the ___
Started the September of violence
Corruption of the ballot box made it so only ten percent of the eligible voters voted.
France was declared a republic in 1792
Rousseau’s social contract had become the new bible in a sense
All rights and property was to be set to the general will.
Maximilien Robespierre
Said that France was filled with people who wanted to end the revolution, that you had to force
people to be free even if that meant death
Even the calendar was changed. A new world based around the revolution which was the Jacobin
revolution of 1792
Louis XVI was killed in 1793 I think
The reign of terror began
Robespierre started to guillotine all political oppositions
Became a tyrant of France with the obsession of
The fall of Robespierre was the end of terror
The public safety was okay, the Jacobin club was closed. Partial allowance of Christian practice
was permitted and the most radical of economic practices were closed.
A new constitution in 1795,
The Directory
A collection of five people
The middle class had yet again re-established its hold on the revolution
Gave France it’s best government
The French revolutionary army was successful
The directory fell,
Became military dictator in France
Declared himself emperor
Ended the revolution