HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - New Imperialism, Pseudoscience, Social Darwinism

8 views2 pages
Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
Page:
of 2
New Imperialism
Darwin as a challenge to religious orthodoxy
people began to invest in Darwin a lot more than Darwin intended
o people viewed him as a new way of offering a new idea of viewing nations, races,
politics, societies in the contemporary world
o This is referred to as Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism
social application of Darwin's organic evolution
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
"Survival of the Fittest"
Nations in struggle for survival
racial theories
connections to new Imperialism
Herbert coined the theory of 'survival of the fittest'
he said nations and societies are organisms that change over time, and they are in competition
for resources in order to survive
o came out of romanticism
the main principle of the charter of Vienna was so that no one European power would get too
powerful
this brought a new rise to pseudoscientific racism
o a hierarchy of races
o some believed it would be better to destroy the 'lesser fit' the 'under developed'
o created new development (in a bad way) for anti-Semitism
we can't really link Darwin to Spencer's theories, but we can see how some people had
developed and twisted his ideas to a new idea, new imperialism
New Imperialism
1. motivations for imperialism
2. tools of conquest
3. scramble for Africa
4. imperialism in Asia
people thought you could make money from invading new areas and having ruling of large
territories
there was need for new markets, cheap materials,
western manufacturers thought they would find these things in Africa and Asia
there was large contentious
Marx predicted imperialism, as a bad way. That expansion was from the core of capitalism and
surplus, this is what the middle class would try for. He didn't always see this as a bad thing. this
would kind of speed up the process to a classless society
Lenin took this in a different direction, he expanded Marx's theory of imperialism
o Lenin said that imperialism was a technique that would help European nations put off
revolutions
if you didn't compete for resources, you would decline and advance
the french saw nationalism as a way to build national moral
Civilizing Mission - the white man's burden
the french had a duty to spread Christianity
transportation
weapons
disease
railroads go much further and are cheaper than bullets
communication technologies,
something about Ethiopia against Italy, they won at first
King Leopold, king of Belgian
o at the rubber companies in the Congo, if people weren't producing enough they would
cut off the hands off the workers and then mail them to Leopold so that they knew
that they were enforcing the law
The Boer war( 1899-1920)
o a war that had the British attacking the Boer (Dutch descendants) for gold

Document Summary

Darwin as a challenge to religious orthodoxy. Social darwinism social application of darwin"s organic evolution. Nations in struggle for survival racial theories connections to new imperialism. Herbert coined the theory of "survival of the fittest" We can"t really link darwin to spencer"s theories, but we can see how some people had developed and twisted his ideas to a new idea, new imperialism. New imperialism: motivations for imperialism, tools of conquest, scramble for africa imperialism in asia. People thought you could make money from invading new areas and having ruling of large territories there was need for new markets, cheap materials, there was large contentious. Western manufacturers thought they would find these things in africa and asia. Marx predicted imperialism, as a bad way. That expansion was from the core of capitalism and surplus, this is what the middle class would try for.