HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Vyacheslav Molotov, Yalta Conference, Truman Doctrine

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
Page:
of 4
Origins of the cold war: lecture Outline
ending WWII
visions for the post-war settlement
two superpowers/bi-polar world
rebuilding Europe
Dividing Germany
New international institutions and alliances
ending WWII
turning points: el Alamein and Stalingrad
surrender of Italy (1943)
Second front/D-day (6 June 1944)
soviet advances
atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 1945)
the British and Americans could use North America as a launching pad to move up the Italian
peninsula
Hitler's generals wanted to give up Stalingrad and wanted to move around the allies to the oil
fields, but Hitler attacked the city directly
Two great russian armies came down to Stalingrad and surrounded the Germans
German army was frozen, malnurished, because they were stuck and they surrendered in 1943.
Soviet troops were able to advance,
Stalingrad was the furthest German got into Russia
after disaster in north Africa, El alamein
Mussolini was discredited; lost a lot of domestic support. The king of Italy dismissed Mussolini as
prime minister; that couldn't actually happen because he was a dictator but he was able to
because there were enough fascists who believed that he was not doing well enough so they got
together with the king to kick him out.
new Government came in, signed a treety with the allied forcecs, surrender
Italy surrendered because of this
Hitler didn't think this was a good idea. They didn't think that Allies should have a base right
below Germany
Germans took over certain areas of their former ally, Rome
Northern half of Italy; they propped up Mussolini as a puppet government; the Germans say
that Italy didn't actually surrender
Stalin believed that they had to fight the Germans on two fronts. Not only from the north but
also the West
Stalin pushed to create a new focal point of fighting so that not all of the pressure was on the
soviet forces in the East
Stalin resented the idea that the allies were pushin the forces up away from Africa
Pressuring the west to open up a new front
by invading Normandy they created a new front; D-Day
able to establish a beach front; landing of 2 million soldiers;
Free france forces; group of people who didn't surrender with the rest of France
While the allies were pushing from the west, Soviets were pushing from the east
German troops started to withdrawl in fear of being captured
Germans attempted, through Belgium, but they lost
Allies learned a lesson from WWI
o if you create a spoken peace treaty, it can create future problems
o there was no question that Germany woudl have to be thuroughly defeated to the point
of surrender
o that's what happened in May
April 30th, 1945, Hitler killed himself by shooting himself
August 1945, first nukes
end of the war meant that stage was set for rebuilding, for putting the world back together,
and creating a new world order for what the Allies envisioned and planned
Planning the Post-War World
Atlantic Charter (August 1941)
o called for the international peace keeping society
o free people?
o other things
Tehran Conference (November 1943)
o first attempt to create a solution for post war
o Held in Iran
o first time the big 3 met to decide
o planned for the projected invasion of eastern Europe
o Stalin agreed to join in the fight for japan because the allies opened up the second
front
o about: getting the allies to open up a new front, getting the Soviets join in the fight for
Japan;
o became great worry by expanding Soviet powers
Yalta Conference (February 1945)
o had soviet and western forces closing in on Germany
o what's gonig to happen to the territories after Germany surrendered was the question
of the day
o Stalin wanted to enforce a hard peace on Germany; really punish them for all taht they
had caused
o Russian savillians and soldiers surrendered much more than the other allies
o if we break geramny up, there will be a power vaccume in central Europe. What will
happen, the soviet union could fill the space.
o the Yalta conference didn't solve the problem but they decided on a temparary
solution
they will divide germany into four military zones
France
Britain
America
Soviet
o what would happen to Poland was a problem
the soviets organized a communist thing in Poland
the polish underground, greatly aligned with the British, and didn't want to
become a communist puppet state
When the pro British solution, the Soviet Army didn't help; they let the
Germans crush them because they wanted their communist Poland to win
o Roosevelt went home thinking that Stalin agreed to have a free and open Poland
o Stalin went home wanting to maintain all his power with Poland
Potsdam Conference (July 1945)
o Churchill was voted out of office during Potsdam
o Roosevelt died before Potsdam, the vice president came in. Truman didn't know a lot
of what Roosevelt knew.
o In Germany, Stalin came face to face with two new people.
he thought he could bully them a bit
o Stalin promised free elections in Poland, but he had no intention to keep this. Sitting
down with the new people, he refused to agree
o
these victorious military powers would have to figure out what to do; first attempt
British worried about an expanding
nuclear arms race: only power to have the new Atomic weapons
America was the most powerful; least broken, best economy
1946-1948: Soviet power increase
if the domestic populations didn't like this, full might of the Soviet power would stomp down
on them
Origins of the Cold War
mistrust between the UUSR and Western allies
soviet client states in eastern Europe
Vyacheslav Molotov (1890-1986)
"Iron Curtain" Speech (March 1946)
Truman Doctrine (1947)
Containment
Declared publically that western democracies were evil.
Iron curtain speech
speech given by Winston Churchill
said that our former allies set up a system that we disagree with all across Europe. Says it's
behind the Iron curtain
gave this speech in the United States

Document Summary

Visions for the post-war settlement two superpowers/bi-polar world rebuilding europe. New international institutions and alliances ending wwii turning points: el alamein and stalingrad surrender of italy (1943) Atomic bombs on hiroshima and nagasaki (august 1945) soviet advances the british and americans could use north america as a launching pad to move up the italian peninsula. Hitler"s generals wanted to give up stalingrad and wanted to move around the allies to the oil fields, but hitler attacked the city directly. Two great russian armies came down to stalingrad and surrounded the germans. German army was frozen, malnurished, because they were stuck and they surrendered in 1943. Stalingrad was the furthest german got into russia. After disaster in north africa, el alamein. Mussolini was discredited; lost a lot of domestic support. New government came in, signed a treety with the allied forcecs, surrender. Hitler didn"t think this was a good idea. They didn"t think that allies should have a base right.