HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Democratic Socialism, Class Consciousness, Scientific Socialism

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
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"Utopian Socialism"
Charles Fourier (1772-1838)
Robert Owen (1771-1858)
Louis Blanc (1813-1882)
Flora Tristan (1803-1844)
Marx thought that the original socialism was unpractical that he wanted to dismiss it, that they were a
bunch of utopians . He wanted to create the true Socialism, the scientific socialism
These people are not working class people,
a system of thought focused on the social
Charles Fourier
proposed small communities
Robert Owen
did put some of Charles' ideas to action
natural goodness; would be reviled if not in competition but in a cooperative society
opposite of Adam Smith's ideas; pursuing self interest causes the common good where Owen
says that the natural good can't come through self interest but in cooperation
he built a model community
took a squalid factory town, a typical factory town, and through building the community he
turned it into a flourishing, thriving community
business is served better when the owners treat the workers as well as the machines
Louis Blanc
fits in the early modern of socialist ideas
move away from the purely theoretical and idealistic to something more practical
wrote a piece that said social problems could be solved through government assistance
competition is the main problem
called for workshops to be owned by the workers and funded by the state
o cut out the middle class
attempted to put this together after the (revolution) in France,
o attempted to put state funded factories
o not enough funding
o there were too many people attempting to get into the state funded workshop and it
caused some people to be upset
Flora Tristan
a utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism
absolute equality, gender equality, was the only way to free the working class
appealed back to the ideology of the French revolution
o call back to industrialization
o but more to liberty, quality, and brotherhood.
that has to apply across all genders
these people were dismissed as naive and crazy
Marx and other socialists later disagreed with them
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
With Freidrich Engels, Manifesto of the Communist party (1848)
"Materialist conception of history'
"alienation"
"The History of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles."
International workingmen's' Association (1864-1876)
came from a middle class family, was Jewish, his father then turned Protestant
he had a PHD in Philosophy
became an atheist
became a radical journalist
he was with a large group of philosophers who argued the philosophy of Hegel
He was a critique of religion,...
became an editor of a newspaper that was founded by a Liberal businessman
in 1842, him and his wife began an almost lifelong exile from Germany
o He couldn't make a life in Germany
o he went to Paris
In Paris he became more knowledgeable about Socialist literature
became friends with Engels when in Paris
The Prussians wanted him even out of Paris
o he then went to Brussels
o in Brussels he developed the Materialist conception of History
Materialist Conception of History
legal structures, political structures, come from the material possessions in life
his conclusion; humanity gets into certain relationships, and those relations are not something
you seek out, they are based on material forces and how items are produced, and your relation
to them. Material conditions of production are the foundation, and above that foundation we
have a super structure that have a form of consciousness; political, social consciousness.
o through class interest and protagonists
o it's the role in material position in society that creates the consciousness of humans,
your place in the system of production
o ideas legal principles and politics are all produced from material products, class angles,
those class interests will get into antagonisms with others and that leads to
revolutions. Shifts economic foundation and relations of production and class
structure. This creates the whole super structure of change.
o Ideas don't create you, what you are in an economic sense is what creates ideas
o law, politics, religion, philosophy,
those are a super structure created by class conflict,
all history as we know it is motivated by class struggle
in the 1840's, Marx began to call himself Communist
we can rationally study relations of production
the idea is that humanity is self determined, that community can master instead of be under a
master
Alienation;
a fundamental problem in modern industrial problem
a slave of the social system,
monstrous and dehumanizing, but necessary
history has an inevitable progression.
o only the process will create a working class consciousness
o we need collective action
a theory of history deduced by rational realization of history?
elimination of class seclusion
International Workingmen's' Association
class identity is fiction
unskilled workers for the first time were part of standing up for class interest for the first time.
Marx himself called for mass movements. So that they can politicize classes to get them ready
for revolution.
Bismarck
he banned Socialism
1890, Bismarck falls, socialist parties can organize now, major mass movement arguing for
change through Europe even to today.
Social Democracy
outcome from Socialism in Germany
Evolutionary Socialism
parliamentary systems to create change. Create change not through revolution but through
political participation

Document Summary

Marx thought that the original socialism was unpractical that he wanted to dismiss it, that they were a bunch of utopians . He wanted to create the true socialism, the scientific socialism. These people are not working class people, A system of thought focused on the social. Did put some of charles" ideas to action. Natural goodness; would be reviled if not in competition but in a cooperative society. Opposite of adam smith"s ideas; pursuing self interest causes the common good where owen says that the natural good can"t come through self interest but in cooperation. He built a model community took a squalid factory town, a typical factory town, and through building the community he turned it into a flourishing, thriving community. Business is served better when the owners treat the workers as well as the machines. Louis blanc fits in the early modern of socialist ideas. Move away from the purely theoretical and idealistic to something more practical.