Realignment of Europe.docx

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Realignment of Europe
Mohammed II (1451-81)
Suleiman the Magnificent (d. 1566)
Mohacs (1526)
Lepanto (1571)
Granada
Vasco da Gama
-almost every aspect of European life was being changed due to pressure
-Europe had v. diff. boundaries & concepts of the state after the Reformation; new states were created
& old ones were dissolved during the religious wars
-not only was Europe internally unstable, but instability was being thrust upon the European continent
-European tendency to address fundamental issues through warfare
- shift of power away from the Mediterranean at end of 15th century, becoming a v. dangerous place,
Atlantic seacoast was new centre of action
-beginning of return of long-distance trade, Italy developed economically as a result & was able to
spread concentrated wealth through much of Euro. Continent (beginning of rise of financial empires)
facilitation of trade involved development of vehicles (banking, insurance, ship-building, etc.) that
would permit faraway economies to grow
-1453: fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks (eventually all of Byzantine Empire fell to Ottoman Turks
& much of the wealth from Venice was effected b/c of the trade they did w/ the Byzantines) led to war
(to protect trading connections)
the Christians lost, the Turks were almost always victorious b/c they had zeal for expansion, under the
sultan Mohammed II, the expansion of Ottoman Turks went beyond to Christian provinces of Byzantium
(ex. Serbia, Bosnia, etc.) was impossible to maintain profitable trade between East & West Italian
cities started losing their empires (ex. Venice was now a part of Turkey)
-Mohammed II attack on the Italian peninsula (Turks held part of Italy for over a year)
seemed Turks would sweep all of Christianity out of the Mediterranean
-after Mohammed II, there was movement on part of suppressors to attack fellow Islamic nations
around Turkey, & one by one those nations fell (ex. Persia, Syria, Egypt, then expanded by sea into North
Africa) Luther’s revolt in 1517 in Europe, but outside Europe the Turkish Empire controlled ark around
Mediterranean, challenged Christianity (Christianity itself was being challenged from inside & outside)
1485-1559: Ottoman Empire tripled in size (European felt degree of fear)
-Turks established military posts & control in Balkans, from which they moved North & from Suleiman
the Magnificent they started moving to Balgrave (Europeans new Turks would have almost nothing in
their way)
King Louis of Hungry & military forces gathered to stop them, but the Turks annihilated them (almost
entire Christian army was slaughtered, 1526: nothing to stop the Turks)
-Turks began to move into Austria, 1529: laid siege to city of Vienna (was too early for Turks to succeed
in expansion, supporting the enormous army, so siege was broken & central Europe was just saved)
-1529: Christians had no idea how dangerous the situation was
-1571: Christian victory in Lepanto stopped the Turks (even then, it wasn’t the end at all)
-Turks tried again in 1680s, more sophisticated Turkish army laid siege to Vienna again, but only w/
coming of King of Poland that broke siege & saved Europe
-siege in Vienna had v. positive effect: Turks had set fire to their portable city so it wouldn’t fall into
hand of Christians: smell of beans coffee entered European imagination as a consequence, but bakers
of Vienna began to make croissants (in shape of Turkish symbol)
-shift of power to Atlantic seaboard was necessary b/c Turks had destroyed connection between East &
West for trade
-during 100 years of war w/ Turks, Mediterranean was a dangerous place to be b/c of pirates (& was
becoming less profitable b/c of extra taxes)necessary to find new trade routes for spice to preserve
food, wealthy Europeans still wanted silks & slaves (could only be acquired from the East)
b/c of this, Portugal took advantage of location & began to look for alternate routes to acquire these
things, so began to sale down coast of Africa to see if the continent had an end (Romans had never done
this) navigators went a little bit farther every year
-1486: Bartholomew Diaz found Cape of Good Hope, continent did have an end
-1497-98, Vasco da Gama sailed from Lisbon around Africa & made contact w/ civilizations of India
(Portuguese largely controlled route of spice ships) resources could be acquired in Lisbon, not just in
Venice
-b/c of the Portuguese getting there first, drove Columbus to go to Spanish to receive funding to find
another way of getting to the East (not have to go around Africa) was wrong, but discovered new
world (wealth that had come to Spanish empire by end of 15th century was overwhelming: situation in
Spain was v. advantageous, it was a diff. world; shift in mentality allowed Ferdinand & Isabella to take a
chance on Columbus)
-by 1450, Iberian peninsula had coalesced into kingdom of Portugal & Muslim Granada, 2 Spanish
kingdoms were united in marriage of Ferdinand & Isabella, but were separated by language & culture,
but they did share 1 thing powerfully: zealous Roman Catholicism
-Europeans expected to be attacked, but Spanish Christianity allowed them to define themselves as diff.
than others
-French & Irish saw themselves as defenders of Christianity
1492: Mores were driven from Granada & Spain was united
-strengthened Catholic zeal: Spain used centralization to ensure the kingdom could withstand
dangers of Islam (the Jewish community was also driven out, as they were also considered to be
traitors)
-to be a zealous Roman Catholic was to announce European-ness (the Spanish Inquisition had
special power for Spanish unity)
-unified Spain also shifted political balance of power (inexhaustible gold from Spanish colonies
made Iberian Peninsula v. rich)
-the Habsburgs helped this along (Antwerp was to be a central money market, away from Italy,
other banks in Germany & elsewhere also grew the Low Countries got richer)
real power in Europe shifted North, provided new opportunities for political, social &
economic growth
-16th-century: mentality that driving people out of Europe would allow all of these victories to be had
-new nations were struggling for primacy, necessary to determine the greatest power in Europe, &
contenders were: Spain, France, the Low Countries, England (which were new powers)
-war to determine different kind of freedom, further new states, etc.: most vicious since
barbarian invasions at the end of the Roman Empire
-the Thirty Years War redistributed power: had to have more than wealth to win, as Spain did
-at the end of this war, in 1648, the Europe that then existed would be the one that lasted until
the Fr. Rev.

Document Summary

Almost every aspect of european life was being changed due to pressure. Europe had v. diff. boundaries & concepts of the state after the reformation; new states were created. & old ones were dissolved during the religious wars. Not only was europe internally unstable, but instability was being thrust upon the european continent. European tendency to address fundamental issues through warfare. Shift of power away from the mediterranean at end of 15th century, becoming a v. dangerous place, Beginning of return of long-distance trade, italy developed economically as a result & was able to spread concentrated wealth through much of euro. Facilitation of trade involved development of vehicles (banking, insurance, ship-building, etc. ) that would permit faraway economies to grow. 1453: fall of constantinople to ottoman turks (eventually all of byzantine empire fell to ottoman turks. & much of the wealth from venice was effected b/c of the trade they did w/ the byzantines) led to war (to protect trading connections)