HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Proxy War, Total War

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
HIS109Y1- Lecture Fifteen
The Thirty Years War
October 31/2012
Hussites
A. von Wallenstein (1583 to 1634)
Gustavus Adolphus (1632)
Westphalia (1648)
Richelieu
-30 years was broke out in 1618 in Bohemia
-the spark was both religious and political: in 1609, the emperor promised religious
freedom to Hussites of Bohemia (based upon Protestantism; Hussites before Luther)
-Emperor’s cousin Ferdinand was devoutly Catholic and refused Protestantism so
Bohemians rebelled
-Kings of Bohemia were elected, so Bohemian nobles tried to depose Ferdinand. They
then elected Frederick
-the Habsburgs then couldn’t accept this so Ferdinand invaded Bohemia. Negotiations
were attempted but the Bohemians threw Habsburg ambassadors out the window.
They survived but now informed the Habsburgs that the only option was war
-Dutch confederacy/Transylvania all supported Bohemia with troops and money
-Habsburgs were receiving lots of money from Spain via the New World
1620: white mountain battle where Protestants were greatly defeated and Habsburgs
were Kings of Bohemia once more
-Ferdinand still wasn’t happy so he brought in Jesuits to convert/destroy Protestantism
-in German speaking lands, Habsburgs ruled unchallenged
-Dutch Kings formed a Protestant alliance to try to override Habsburgs but were
defeated by a mercenary called A. von Wallenstein. He put together his own private
army of professional soldiers. They were loyal only to him not to the emperor
-the army was to be paid by what they could take from the conquered land. This put all
of Europe in danger since it was placed in total war
-Ferdinand then was in charge of all Protestant power. he declared the Edict of
Restitution which meant all Protestant property had to be given back to the Catholics
and the Habsburg empire
-the princes of Germany wanted Wallenstein’s army disbanded so they refused to elect
Ferdinand’s son as emperor unless he disbanded them
-European states became afraid of the new power of the HRE; France in particular
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Document Summary

30 years was broke out in 1618 in bohemia. The spark was both religious and political: in 1609, the emperor promised religious freedom to hussites of bohemia (based upon protestantism; hussites before luther) Emperor"s cousin ferdinand was devoutly catholic and refused protestantism so. Kings of bohemia were elected, so bohemian nobles tried to depose ferdinand. The habsburgs then couldn"t accept this so ferdinand invaded bohemia. Negotiations were attempted but the bohemians threw habsburg ambassadors out the window. They survived but now informed the habsburgs that the only option was war. Dutch confederacy/transylvania all supported bohemia with troops and money. Habsburgs were receiving lots of money from spain via the new world. 1620: white mountain battle where protestants were greatly defeated and habsburgs were kings of bohemia once more. Ferdinand still wasn"t happy so he brought in jesuits to convert/destroy protestantism. In german speaking lands, habsburgs ruled unchallenged.

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