30 years was broke out in 1618 in bohemia. The spark was both religious and political: in 1609, the emperor promised religious freedom to hussites of bohemia (based upon protestantism; hussites before luther) Emperor"s cousin ferdinand was devoutly catholic and refused protestantism so. Kings of bohemia were elected, so bohemian nobles tried to depose ferdinand. The habsburgs then couldn"t accept this so ferdinand invaded bohemia. Negotiations were attempted but the bohemians threw habsburg ambassadors out the window. They survived but now informed the habsburgs that the only option was war. Dutch confederacy/transylvania all supported bohemia with troops and money. Habsburgs were receiving lots of money from spain via the new world. 1620: white mountain battle where protestants were greatly defeated and habsburgs were kings of bohemia once more. Ferdinand still wasn"t happy so he brought in jesuits to convert/destroy protestantism. In german speaking lands, habsburgs ruled unchallenged.