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Lecture 37

HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 37: Enrico Corradini, Benito Mussolini, Italo-Turkish War

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Kenneth Bartlett

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Collapse of Germany in 1918 caused extreme right wing ideologies
Fascism developed first in Italy
United Italy was not a great power, weak, poor, & hesitant nation
No natural resources, little industry, imported everything
Unification mixed blessing, north benefited, south suffered heavily
Created south vs. north mentality, fragmented
Liberal democratic govn. Fraud
Only 600,000 people could vote, due to literacy, etc. Restrictions, therefore, only most of
North could vote
Catholic church vs. Italian people, if you recognize Italy, you are not a catholic
Italy was anti-clerical, Pius the 9th deserved it for his aggressive & infallible (1870)
Huge burst of Nationalism after unification, Roman empire would be recreated,lead
Europe with a shining light (culture, art, etc.)
Would take Austrian-Italian States, part of National Fatherland, take what’s
1890’s: Tried to take Ethiopia, defeated, but attempted nonetheless
Nationalistic beyond belief, but did not have power to support it
Fascism desire of national purpose, method of achieving their goals
Enrico Corradini; figurehead of nationalists
Founded nationalistic journal “The Kingdom”
Need for complete reconstruction of society to achieve nationalist desires
Desire to emulate militaristic states, like Imperial Germany & Japan, semi-
autocratic empires
Liberal-democratic traditions dead, lead to weakness, need nationalism
Founded Italian Nationalist Party
1911L Libyan war, nationalists heard, ITalian govn. Acted on nationalists desires
1911: 3 members to chambers who were nationalist, disappointing, but could talk in
State had failed people, anti-govn., violence, revolution became nationalistic and patriotic
Nationalists wanted WWI, huge moment for Nationalist party
Italy was supposed to support Triple Alliance, left vs. right
Civil order began to break down in 1914 govn., essentially ceased to operate, paralyzed
Right intimidated left
Both sides became more evolutionistic, left vs. right, no middle
Anyone with property attracted to right, right promised protection
Italy entered war in 1915 on opposite side, right had voice of Italy, ultimate enemy was
Austria-Hungary, they held territories and they oppressed ‘natural’ Italian states, ITalians
hated Austria-Hungary
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