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Lecture 32

HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 32: Sigmund Freud, Unconscious Mind, Age Of Enlightenment

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Kenneth Bartlett

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Reactions to Rationalism
The Enlightenment Mode: Humans are supreme
Escaping the iron law is incredibly difficult, but each generation had their own means of
dealing with it
Reason was the instrument that would solve the problems of humanity
Law of Acceleration: Human reason applied to the problems and difficulty of the world
… every time you solve a problem, that problem will solve other problems… so if we
keep solving problems, we will fix the world.
Intelligent French men felt betrayed when the French was defeated by the Prussians in
M.Barres led this group of betrayed Frenchmen (Les Decraicines)
They sought comfort in irrational movements (anti-Semitism)
Friedrich Nitzsche
“The nationalism and the opportunity for the individual to go above reason and become
something greater than a rational mind meant that the war was not just between nations,
but the working out of different conceptions of what constitutes nations itself.”
There was a growing interest in the irrational, the things that could not be proved by
scientific method.
Ivan Pavlov
Showed that animals could be conditioned to behave in pre-programmed ways
Sigmund Freud
Through hypnosis, interpretation of dreams, illustrated that human beings possessed an
irrational component
Explored this to give it validity
Freud didn’t accept Pavlov’s idea
Believed we were driven by the unconscious mind
Called the unconscious mind (ID) more powerful than the conscious mind (EGO)
Theories challenged that we are in control of ourselves
Began to look into the subconscious
Tried to stimulate a different kind of reality
Appearances were one thing, real reality was something else
Edvard Munch
Painted the scream
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