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Lecture 43

HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 43: Atlantic Charter, Nuclear Weapon, Nato


Department
History
Course Code
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett
Lecture
43

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History
HIS109 // Lecture 43 // March 30th
THE COLD WAR AND COMPETING IDEOLOGIES
F.D. Roosevelt (1882-1945)
Winston Churchill (1874-1965)
J. Stalin (1879-1953)
B. Truman (1884-1972)
Clement Attlee (1883-1967)
Teheran 1943
Yalta 1945
Potsdam 1945
Central and Eastern Europe lost more people than they did in WW1, especially compared to the
England and the Commonwealth.
The complete destruction of modern cities infrastructures, etc. due to aircraft and carpet-bombing.
Agriculture and crops, transportation systems, power-generating stations were prime targets.
o No food to the cities.
Civil order began to break down (specifically in Germany).
50 million people were dispossessed by the war.
India and Pakistan partition.
These migrations of Europeans devastated Europe as they were going to places with no infrastructure.
Americans and British and other western allies managed to successfully cope with these refugees.
o Success is easured i these peoples’ survival.
o DP (displaced persons).
What to do with Europe?
o Reconstruction began long before fighting was over.
o Rather than relying on comprehensive peace treaties, the fate of Europe was decided under
negotiations.
o Began before U.S came in the war.
o Roosevelt and Churchill signed Atlantic Charter:
Pledged that the U.S. and Britain would restore sovereign rights to all nations.
Have free access to trade and economic activity.
All nations would be encouraged to work together with an agency that would try
and avert war.
o Dec. 1943 allies met again:
How would Germany be treated once Hitler was defeated?
Was to be demilitarized.
Occupied by allied forces.
These meetings up to this point were relatively straightforward as all allied powers
agreed to fundamental principles and elements regarding the treatment of Germany.
Russian advancement in 1944 toward Germany changed this.
Roosevelt was becoming a problem:
o Was sick.
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