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Lecture 40

HIS109Y1 Lecture 40: Lecture 40 - Nazi Regime

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Kenneth Bartlett

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HIS109 // Lecture 40 // March 21st
Totalitarian Europe the Nazi regime in Germany
Paul von Hinderburg (1847-1934)
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
Roots of Fascism founded in Italy. Those ideas and ideologies infact crossed the Alps and produced
something quite different.
Italian nationalism developed from intense economic and political pressures. In Germany, there was a
chaotic, desperate circumstance under the Weimar government.
Hitler was not born in Germany, but in Austria-Hungary.
o Believed he was an artist and tried twice to get into the Vienna Academy of Arts.
o Was an orphan, therefore lived off an orphan pension.
o Constantly brooded with psychological anger because the world had not given him the chance.
o He read anti-Seiti atioalist raial theor ritte  authors ho arried soial Dariis’s
theory to another extreme. Authors believed that survival of the fittest extended to not only
nations, but also races.
Anti-Semitism was a powerful of this extreme nationalism and had a long history in central and Eastern
o Jews were characterized by the Pan-German movement. The organizer developed a political
and social following in which he recognized that the Jews were examples of weak, evil, racial
qualities. They not only inhibited the development of white races, but also conspired against
o Came to believe that strength would help move the superior races farther along the
evolutionary scale. Thus, ensuring survival of the fittest among people and making the
Germanic race the most superior of them all.
o Thought the Marxist and Socialist analysis was wrong. The support of those who had failed in
life were culpable. It is not that they were disadvantaged; they were the problem as their lack
of success was an indication of a inferiority.
o Hitler was becoming emotional unstable. He blamed society (like Rousseau) for his failures, and
therefore, society was evil and wrong and conspired against people like him. Only solution was
to destroy it and build it the way he wants. These racist muddled ideas became confused with
the belief in his want to have a superior Germanic race that would have to punish the rest of
the world.
o WW1 gave Hitler a purpose. War was a direct action, a way in proving that you are a part of the
great race. Once war was over, he returned to a shattered and demoralized Germany. Looked
for a scapegoat to put the defeat on Jews and Marxists.
There was a Jewish and Bolsheviks conspiracy that threatened the Weimar republic.
o Built this tiny bag of misfits and thugs into ordered men. Gave them a sense of purpose, and
allowed them to blame their failures on someone.
o Alost aoe ho did’t fit ito his etreel arro ie as part of the prole.
Put all of this in Mein Kampf.
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