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Lecture

HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Jan Hus, John Colet, English Reformation


Department
History
Course Code
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett

Page:
of 4
Class 11 – October 20th, 2010
The Reformation continued - in England
J.Collet (d. 1519)
J. Wycliffe (d.1384)
Cardinal Wolsey (d.1529)
Thomas Cromwell (d.1540)
T.Cranmer (d.1556)
Henry VIII (d. 1547)
Edward VI (d1554)
Mary I (d.1558)
Elizabeth I (d.1603)
J. Wycliffe
oRevolted against the Church
oLeft an important legacy in the Kingdom of Bohemia (John Huss)
Dramatic effect on English Church – monastic behaviour
John Colet
oFan of Erasmus and Thomas More
oAccused of heresy because Church didn’t want to be reformed
oFounded a school
oChurch was dominated by one man –
Cardinal Wolsey
oArchbishop of Europe
oControlled the English Political structure by being the chancellor
oKing’s chief advisor.
1520’s
oDifferent attacks towards the foundations of Church started to weaken
the delicate structure
oVast property owned by the church were in “Mortmaine” (dead hand of
the church) – once property was in the church it couldn’t be alienated
oHostility from the class holding Gentry and nobility.
Role of Pope in England was always suspect, questionable (developed during
the Babylonian Captivity – seemed to put the Papacy under the control of the
french)
Canon law was extraordinarly complex and it was everywhere – wills,
marriage, sue, etc.
oCanon law courts were long and expensive
oPeople that dealth with it hated it.
1511 Case of Honey
oRichard Honey
oLondon Merchant
oDifficult – tragedy (his infant died)
oRichard got angry and hit the Priest (after charging him money to bury
Baby)
oRichard Honey went to jail, next day he was strangled
The church only had access to him – Church killed him.
Lutheran revolt
o1520 Breach in Church
Henry VIII
oDevout, loyal to Roman Catholic Church
oWrote the Assertion of the 7 Sacraments in response to Martin Luther
oHated the idea of the reformation
oHenry married dead brothers widow – Catherine of Aragon
oHenry Tudor (VII) had his claims to the Crown
oHenry the VIII needed an heir – The idea of a queen was unimaginable
for Henry
oHenry 7th had two sons- Arthur (who died)
oCatherine of Aragon – had one child a female – Mary
oHenry 8th started a huge policy to get a divorce
Asked for Wolsey for help
oItaly – 1527 – imperial army led by royal French trator invaded rome
Pope Clement 2nd – managed to draw the divorce discussion that
he had no intention of granting a divorce on the claim of incest
oHenry became even more angry – angry at Wolsey
oHenry went to Thomas More - More became Lord Chancellor
o1529 – fall of Wolsey
The parliament of the Reformation
Adressed minor abuses and sent the information to Rome
Burned a few Lutherans – to show he is a good member of the
Church
oHenry was still mad seeing that the divorce has not gone through yet
Wanted the divorce to be through the church
oHenry fell in love with the younger sister – Anne Boleyn
oAnne Boleyn – didn’t jump into Henry’s bed, she refused to sleep with
him, wanted to be Queen.
oUltimately Henry had his way with her.
oSlept with him on a boat, and she became pregnant
oHenry was in love with someone else, the mistress was pregnant who
might be carrying his heir.
oBegan attacking the Roman Church through Parliament
oParliament was now in Charge by Thomas Cromwell
Thomas Cromwell
oBishops were forbidden to have their appointments ratified in Rome
oCommisions begun, to investigate the Clergy (Honey Case)
oHenry 8th was showing a clear image that he was going to reform if he
didn’t get his way.
Submission of the Clergy
oSigned the document making the King head of the Church
oThomas More resigned as lord chancellor
Thomas Cromwell
oFound Thomas Cramner to be the new Archbishop
oThomas Cramner married Henry 8th to Anne Boleyn after the divorce
with Catherine of Aragon
oMarriage of Henry 8th and Anne Boleyn wasn’t really good
1536 – Act of
oDissolution of the monasteries, started with the little house and went
up.
Anne Boleyn
oDid not give birth to a girl, then gave birth to a deformed child
oHenry said she was a witch
oHad her head cut off
Jane Seymour – new mistress of Henry and wife number three
Parliament created an English Church – Henry was pleased, didn’t want to
change much from Roman Catholic
Jane Seymour produced a male heir – however died in childbirth
oEdward VI
Henry had no wife again – in Cleeves a woman named Anne was found
oHenry wasn’t present at his wedding
oAnne came to consummate marriage
o“This woman pleaseth me not”
oDidn’t want to consummate marriage, drank himself to death.
Henry took out anger on Cromwell for wrongfully “pimping”
1540 – Henry cut off Cromwell’s head.
Henry went back to a Conservative status, lived the rest of his life eating
himself to death and marrying to Catherine Howard (head cut off again for
sleeping around) and then again married.
The death of Henry meant the English reformation went in a total different
direction.
Henry VI
oRaised by protestants, father died at 9.
oGrew up by having psychopathic behaviour of the other Tudor’s
oTurned the rule of the kingdom to his advisors – rapidly became a
Calvinist state.
oThe bible was translated, catholics rounded up and in jail
oIt showed that England was turning Calvinist.
oEdward had TB and was dying.
oDied at 16 – not married, no heirs.
oWill of Henry 8th – Illegitimate half-sister, Mary 1st was next in rule.
Mary 1st
oAttempt at a Coup-D’etat
Jane Grey married Howard
oBecame Queen, only lasted nine days, head cut off.
Mary 1st – 1553
oAngry catholic
oHated protestants
oTried to bring back Catholics
oBurned Protestants
oMarried her cousin Philip of Spain – married her so the heir would rule
and another Hapsburg Empire(son of Charles 5th)
oHysterical pregnancy and cancer – no real baby