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Course Code
Kenneth Bartlett

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Key terms
Mazzini (1805-77)
Louis Kossuth (1802-94)
Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859)
Camillo di Cavour (1810-61)
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-82)
-Nationalism: religion of the 19th C
-Ideas that some nations are better than others
-Sense of national identification
-In some ways it was positive
-Fictional unification of Italy by Napoleon and then Poland
-Growth of national sense of determination was also negative
-Negative in Spain – were against the foreign monarch, and the constitution
-Nationalism was in a sense irrational
-Congress of Vienna – was not discussed: national sense of determination
-Nationalism was identified with republicanism and other negative outcomes of the French Revolution
-Poland and Italy were again absorbed into old empires
-Europeans felt that nationalism was past of oppression and response to the Napoleonic wars
-No attempts to create a new set of states based on national identification
-National feelings which were excited by the French did not disappear
-Revolt of the Poles
-1848: forces beyond traditional empires were at work
-Germanism – free trade customs union united Germanic states (all except Austria)
-Was recognized as a political necessity
-The German Confederation
-Purely economic goals gave rise to a political unification
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