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Lecture 36

HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 36: Machismo, Proxy War

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Kenneth Bartlett

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Lecture: World War II – March 28, 2016
Important Names/Figures
Locarno 1925
Kellogg – Briand Pact (Pact of Paris) 1935
Francisco Franco
Neville Chamberlain
E. Daladier
The Second World War created the shape of the earth to the degree we know it now – not
just in borders but the creation of the European Union, a different attitude toward Europe
and ideological differences
It was inevitable in the same way that WWI was
There is some truth that the war never ended after 1918 and that it was a 30-year-long
war with a fragile truce in the middle
The consequences of the loss of the Triple Alliance to the Triple Entente created the
circumstances that there would have to be another world war
There had been noble attempts to try and secure lasting peace after WWI but they didn’t
work; the conferences and meetings that were arranged to contain the militarism that was
one of the causes of the first world war and also to find a way to get along without
bloodshed failed
Locarno, Switzerland – all of the signatories of the conference meant that Germany and
France would never go to war again together and the Rhine river was Germany’s border
It did far more harm than good
It was counterproductive because these treaties further alienated German nationalists who
still saw Alsace and Lorraine as German territories and they saw the Pacifists, Socialists
and internationalists had once more stabbed Germany in the back and the state must rise
again and seek revenge
The growing divine between civilized discussion and debate all become lost in the rise of
the extreme right in Germany as the Nazis rose to power
1928: idealistic attempt to end war forever, this is the Kellogg-Briand Pact (called the
Pact of Paris) convincing all of the nations of the war to reject war as a national
recognized policy
The attempt of the Pact of Paris to end war was an assault on nationalism, expansionism
and imperialism that were the base of all macho men who believed that you weren’t a
man unless you had a spear in your hand
The hope of the pact was that all international disputes should be settled by peaceful
Almost every nation that signed it said that there would always be pressing instances of
national conflict that might change this – meaning if it was needed, they would go to war
This became the League of Nations – great experiment of collective security,
responsibility of all people to sustain peace
Europeans, however, brought a lot of baggage into it
The US never joined even though they brought it up
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