Name of religion used as ideology, glue and dividing factor. 1609 rudolph 2, granted toleration to hussites. Second defenestration of prague 1618 fell into castle dungheap. Protestants defeated, nobles executed, or exhiled property seized and redistributed. Attempt by protestant king of denmark to undo some of this. Defeated in battle, by albert von wallenstein: private army, violent and vicious army, took anything they wanted from anyone who was in their way. Continued to raise this army to kill protestants. No sense of obligation to protect poor or innocent terror and brutal efficiency ferdinand claimed victory over protestant powers in germany. Edict of restitution, all catholic property since 1552 had to be returned to catholics. Princes of germany wanted to rule independently threatened by wallenstein and ferdinand. Germans went to ferdinand, keep doing things not going to elect ferdinands son emporer.