HIS109Y1 Lecture Notes - Pope Leo X, Babylonian Captivity, Anti-Clericalism

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October 20, 2010
Reformation in England
- Monarch is head of the Church as well as the state
- Centralized monarchy
- Succeeded to uniting the monarchy
- Attempts to try to control the Church of England but in most part they were a part of the
Catholic Church
- Relatively secure place.
- Henry the 7th – House of the Tudor
- 1485 – Brought to the thrown a very conventional king – spent heavily on the Church
- 1500 – English Church was very confident and secure.
- England was known for their monks and religious houses being very rich.
- This enormous wealth had an effect on the English Church.
- Colin was a great performer. – got into a lot of trouble – founded a school.
- The Church was dominated by one man who doesn’t follow the highest calling – Cardinal
Wolsey
- Henry the 8th was lazy and let Wolsey to do all the work and was the king’s Chancellor.
- 1520’s England is known for its mediocrity – no great examples of virtue and goodness.
- Kind of attacks against the ecclesiastical order started to weaken the structure.
- This vast property owned by the Church were in Mortbane – (dead hand) it was in debt.
- There was negative publicity.
- 1520s - attacks against ecclesiastical order (Erasmus etc.) began to weaken the already weak-
ened structure
- Vast property owned by church - once property had been acquired by church, you can’t get it
back
- Rising nobility - wanted more land, but church owned it
- Printing - Erasmus and other people’s works made these ideas spread more quickly
- People were also more aware of what was going on (i.e. Corruption)
- Role of pope in England = suspicion
- Babylonian captivity - put papacy under control of French; seemed like English taxation was
used to fight the English during 100 Years’ War (not true, but it made people suspect the Pope be-
cause they thought there was a bit of French in him)
- Church courts: papal system - had own courts etc
- Canon law = everywhere (almost everything in life had something to do with it); took a long
time to get stuff done – canon law was everywhere – so expensive and took so long, the people
that had to deal with it hated it
-Ideas which drove people who were very difficult began to question the things that everybody
took for granted.
- 1511: Richard Honey
- Part of group with mistrust for clergy
- Was charged by priest for having to bury his dead baby
- Richard got angry and hit the priest
- Priest had Richard arrested
- Richard was found the next morning dead (strangled)
- The only people who had access to him was the CHURCH
- Case of Richard Honey = universal
- Anti-clericalism - reached a climax with Martin Luthers revolt (~1520)
- Difficult to stop it - his ideas were very popular
- King (Henry VIII) was not happy
- He wrote a document defending the Church, saying Luther was wrong
- Pope Leo X gave Henry VIII a title for it (protector of the faith)
- Henry hated Lutherans, Reformation (believed it would disrupt the fabric of the state)
- Things changed - Henry married his dead brothers wife (Catherine of Aragon)
- Tudors didn’t have deep roots having the crown => needed a male heir
- Henry needed a male heir (having a female ruler had proved not to be stable in the Middle
Ages)
- He believed he was in the incestuous marriage: older brother Arthur was married to Catherine
to make an alliance to Spain (and get a HUGE dowry). But Arthur died, and Henry VII didn’t
want to give the money back
- Catherine only had a daughter (Mary I); Henry VIII believed God was punishing him
- Henry VIII NEEDED a divorce; employed Wolsey to get one for him
- Problem: sacking of Rome by French traitor
- Pope Clement VII was imprisoned
- The leader of the invaders (head of the house of Asper; related to the King of France) was
Catherine’s nephew
- Pope then said there was no way he’d grant the divorce
- Henry VIII got angry at Wolsey; Wolsey died before Henry could have him executed (1519)
- Henry went to Thomas More; but More thought Henry was theologically wrong in thinking that
the marriage is wrong
- More accepted the job as chancellor on the condition he’d have nothing to do with the divorce
- 1529 - Parliament formed = parliament of Restoration
- Sent signal to Rome: “if I don’t get my divorce, I’ll do what Lutherans do and split from you” -
but still burned Lutherans to prove he was still a Catholic
- Henry was still keen on being with the Church
- Henry fell in love with the younger sister of one of his mistresses (Anne Boleyn)
- Anne refused to sleep with him (she wanted to be Queen)
- Eventually did - and became pregnant (what if she’s carrying the male heir he wants)
-Thomas Cromwell (d.1540) - managed Parliament; convinced them to allow Church to be
controlled by monarchy
- Church submitted - Henry became head of the Church
- Thomas More resigned as lord chancellor
- Cromwell (in control of everything Henry did)
-Thomas Cranmer = new archbishop; said Henry is right (marriage to Catherine was invalid;
he married Henry to Anne)
- Anne = closet Lutheran
- Anne gave birth to a daughter - Elizabeth I (d.1603)
-1536 - act of suppression of monasteries (done by parliament)
- Anne kept having stillborns and last child = deformed
- Henry was convinced she was a witch --> was interested in one of her ladies-in-waiting (Jane
Seymour)
- Anne was executed; Henry married Jane
- Jane died in childbirth - though gave birth to a boy (Edward VI - died 1553)
- Cromwell sent Holbein to Cleves to find a new wife; made a portrait of Anne of Cleves and
sent it back
- Henry agreed; had a proxy wedding (people pretending to be them)
- When Anne was brought to England - he didn’t like her
- Henry was furious - Cromwell was executed
- Henry married twice more; then died
- Edward was 9 when Henry died
- Edward grew up with Protestantism, Calvinism, bloody-mindedness of Tudors
- Edward had other people rule for him
- Catholics were rounded up and put in jail
- Crown determined religious affairs and religious policy