Irrational - people of same nationality with same customs should live together. Some nations have superiority over others --> can rule over others. Fr rev = form we recognize today began to grow. Sense of national identification - in some ways it was positive --> napoleon created so-called unified italy. Congress of vienna: national self-determination wasn"t discussed. People associated nationalism with all other bad -isms . Some nations that had achieved some national resurgence under french were suppressed (e. g. poland, italy - absorbed by austrian, prussian states) Europeans felt nationalism was part of oppression (response to napoleonic wars) No attempt to create new set of states based on national identification. Desire to go back to how things were. Revolt of poles 1830: against russians, many poles died, russian oppression increased. 1848: things began to change b/c forces were @ work that were contrary to traditional regimes.