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October 5, 2010
Clash of Empires
Imperial Rivalry
1689-1713: the first round(new france faces unfavourable odds, wiped out in terms of
population, better relationship with aboriginal groups than the anglo-american, treaty
made in montreal concluded, the French hold their own, what was left was the position of
stalemate, after 1707: great Britain was formed; the French continue to occupy military
forts, trading posts along Hudson Bay, new france suffers as a result of diplomatic
negotiations); Treaty of Utrecht, 1713(end the european conflict know as the war of Spanish
succession, france required to make major concession in north America: france, under the
treaty of union, gives up claim territories in Newfoundland, france gives up territory
surrounding Hudsons Bay, france give up their claim to Acadia, the colony of nova scotia,
does not mean all was lost for new france, the French retain Canada (the valley of the st.
Lawrence river); they retain Ile St. Jean (PEI) and Ile Royale (Cape Breton Island), very
important to hold on to Ile Royale, the French begin to build a mighty fortress on Ile Royale,
known as Louisbourg)
Louisbourg (centre of economic activity and military, continue to fish, serves as a major
obstacle to the political and economic designs of the British)
The Flowering of New France
Economic; social (filles du roi: daughters of the king, chosen women immigrate from old
france into new france chose from the available men (whether he owned property, made
enough money), as a result the population increased, the average age of marriage creeps up
significantly (15-22), immigration makes a small contribution to the population increase
but the natural population is the major cause of the increase); Acadias golden age (with
the loyal oath, population expands, experiences a rise in agricultural productivity, dikes
(barriers that prevent flooding, allow to trap the waters on the bay of fundy, make
agricultural conditions better), comes to an end in the middle of the 18th century, with the
war of the Austrian succession, does not settle, its followed by the Seven Years War, allows
for a winner to emerge, radically alter the history of north America)
New France & War ( emerges as a fundamental military society, the people of new france
were in a state of mere constant warfare, particularly the five nations and Anglo-American
colonists; peasant farmers going out the develop colony (heroic age), agricultural
development was stifle, militia system: citizen soldiers prepare to defend the colony (16-60),
new France enjoys peace after the treaty of Utrecht, things get better in the colony,
industires like iron works emerge, projects expand, the population expands)
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