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Mc Kim

of 2
October 7, 2010
The Seven Years War (1754-1760)
Phase 1
Beginnings (Fort Duquesne: 1754, French military force would clash with the Anglo-
American force; George Washington: leader of the Anglo-American force; France at a
disadvantage (pop. was small, depended on the fur trade), French enjoy better
relation with their allies, especially with the Algonquians; guerrilla warfare: defined
by unconventional military activities, surprise attacks, surprise raids, constant
warfare, advantage over their rivals because not only did they rely on their people,
they relied on people who were not familiar with the land); British setbacks (Edward
Braddock: designs an elaborate idea to get new France to bow to its knees, qualified
failure, fundamental aim fails, attempts to take fort Duquesne, as a result, Braddock
dies trying to take fort Duquesne); the Acadians fate (Mikmaq: 17th century, violent
clashes between them and the British, caused by the French, was not because the
French told them to, because they were frustrated that the British were trying to
take over their land, British anxieties intensified during the early stages of the
seven years’ war, demanded an unqualified loyalty oath, we will not require you to
take arms and fight against other French-speaking people, British officials’ opinions
begin to change; Charles Lawrence: governor of Nova Scotia, Acadians
underestimated him, their unwillingness to take the oath causes them to enforce
expulsion, 1755: ¾ of the pop. was kicked out of Nova Scotia, send them and
scattered them south, brutal process, Acadians herded together and expelled from
their colony, burned their homes and field to make sure they didnt come back, boats
unsanitary, some of them die before they get to their new homes)
Phase 2
The turning tide (Vaudreuil (knows guerrilla warfare has been an advantage to
France) v. Montcalm (concentrate our influence in the valley of the St. Lawrence,
British side with him); William Pitt: makes the north America dimension of the 7
years war a big priority, increases number of soldiers, a lot more money in the
british warfare, create a naval blockade (1757), makes it impossible for the French to
go across the Atlantic to bring forces and supplies, take Louisbourg and destroyed,
1759: britsh had more ships, more soldiers, an more money into the british warfare,
and as a result created an obstacle for France); the conquest (James Wolfe: put in
charge of an entire army, inexperienced, unhealthy, set by anxiety, uncertainty of
what he should do, tries to attack Quebec from the east, repulsed, tries to attack
again in 1759 in the winter, but decides to attack from the west, landed on land to
the west of Quebec, make their way to the outskirts of Quebec, montcalm decides to
confront wolfe, go to a piece of land known as the plains of Abrahamn; Battle of the
Plains of Abraham: 13 Sept. 1759, engage in a battle to determine the destinies of
british and french empre, the british prevailed, wolofe dies on the battliefield,
montcalm dies the next day); capitulation