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Lecture

Lecture Note


Department
History
Course Code
HIS263Y1
Professor
Mc Kim

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November 18, 2010
HIS 263: Newfoundland, the Northwest & the North to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
I. Newfoundland
Similar yet different
oSimilar-staple-drive economy and demand for greater democratization
oDifferent-attempts on the part of metropolitan authorities to stunt Newfoundlands
development in relation to other BNA colonies
Discouraging Settlement
oSt.Johns, Newfoundland
oEarly European explorers were drawn to Newfoundland for the purposes of
exploiting fish
oKnown as the “beef of the sea”
oEngland establishes itself in Newfoundland in 1610-English merchants sought to
discourage settlement because if many people are living there they will be tempted
to participate in the fishing industry which will compromise their control over the
monopoly
oAfter 1610, Newfoundland exists as a subcolony who are treated differently than
other BNA colonies
oBy the middle of the 17th century there are only 500 English-speaking residents
oIt becomes increasingly important to assert some kind of sovereignty over
Newfoundland because there were other European imperial powers active in the
region
oIn the late 17th century metropolitan authorities recognize the year round settlers
living on Newfoundland-acknowledging that they are a colony
oThe population of the colony would steadily expand
‘rule of the admirals
oThe affairs of government or administration of the colony are carried out by
fishing admirals-chief naval commander of a given fleet of ships
oThe first admiral to arrive would serve as a de facto (not official) admiral
oRule was often erratic-they were only stationed in the colony in the warm months-
void in terms of political authority
oThe admirals are only concerned with the fishing industry
Disappearance of the Beothuk
oLittle is known about this group-likely that they are an Algonkian-speaking people
oWith the arrival of European colonists, the Beothuk (livelihood centered on
fishing and hunting seals) pushed into the interior of Newfoundland
oRivalry emerges between them and the colonists over the resources
oThe Beothuk participate in the hunting of fur-bearing animals for reasons of trade
oColonists moved inland themselves and competed with the Beothuk for fur-
bearing animals
oThey were faced with competition on two fronts-pushed away from the coast and
unable to exploit fur-bearing animals because of the threat of European colonists
oMalnutrition, starvation, disease wiped out the Beothuk population
oPushed the brink of outright extinction
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