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Lecture Note

Course Code
Heidi Bohaker

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HIS263 Jan 11
Louis Riel Revisited
Execution of Louis riel in 1885
Great hero of the Métis people
Riel: the father of Manitoba
Forced McDonald into bringing Manitoba into Confederation
1885 French Catholics in Quebec and Anglo Protestants in Ontario differed on the
understanding of Riels execution
Ontario understood Riel as a murderer and traitor
Quebec understood him as the opposite they took the stand if he was anything but
a French or Catholic, he would have been let off
They thought it to be a great injustice
This difference points to a few key dynamics in the culture and politics of the time
There is a fundamental cleavage between French-Catholics and Anglo-protestants
Local issues become national issues
How cultural issues became political issues
Growing Divisions
In 1890, the government of Manitoba eliminated funding for both catholic and
bilingual programs
A broader attempt for Anglo-Protestant supremacy
These were originally recognized in the Manitoba Act (1871) but were later
The population in the 1870s was equally split between the two religious groups and
recognizing them made sense
Bilingualism was eliminated from legislature, etc
By 1890s, Catholics were only 10% as the other population was swamped by people
of Ontario
Worries that separate schools would hinder a unified nation
This quickly became a national issue
BNA - Remedial legislation a law can be passed in the case of religious rights re
taken away
Confederation was a compact between two founding people
Henri Bourassa: Confederation = cultural duality (pan-Canada)
A cultural nationalist
French Canadians saw this as the predominant view
Anglo-Protestants were the opposite
DAlton McCarthy
Part of the Equal Rights Association and the range Order
Wanted a single education system with no separate rights
Orange order believed in superiority of Anglo-Protestants and loyalty to the crown
Conservatives won every election until 1896 (election of Wilfred Laurier)
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