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Clash of Empires

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Mc Kim

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HIS263YClash of EmpiresTuesday October 5th 2010
Imperial Rivalry
Struggle between Britain and France for imperial supremacy
France had less people and money
The profits from their fur trade decreased, whereas Britains cashcrops allowed for
an increasing profit
New France, while it faced unfavourable odds, had important advantages
1.Superior relationships with Aboriginals, in particular the Algonquian-speaking
2. 1701: For the first time in many decades, the Iroquoian-speaking Five Nations
people assumed a position of neutrality and ceased for a sustained period of time
to participate in military developments in North America
Stalemate between the French and British
French continue to occupy military force and trading ports in the Great Lakes region
as well as Hudson Bay (British areas), they also held on to the massive territory
south of the Great Lakes, which they called Louisiana
New France does fairly well in the war, but suffers as a result of diplomatic
negotiations that take place elsewhere in the world
The first round of the Anglo-French conflict ends in 1713
**Treaty of Utrecht, 1713**
Brings an end to the War of Spanish Succession
During these negotiations, France makes certain gains and consolidates its
influence in various parts of the world, but in exchange for these gains, France was
obliged to make major concessions in North America
1.France, under the auspices of the Treaty of Union, France gives up all claims to
the treaty of Newfoundland, which had previously been jointly occupied by
Britain and France
2.France gives up all territory surrounding Hudsons Bay
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HIS263YClash of EmpiresTuesday October 5th 2010
3.France renounces its claim to Acadia, the region of NE North America which
had been colonized by the French with a slowly increasing population, however
the boundaries of Acadia were ill-defined, which eventually becomes Nova Scotia
This treaty would have a major effect on French-speaking people living in these
areas, who would find themselves under the authority of an English empire
This didnt mean all was lost for New France though, did not signal the end of the
French empire in North America
Most importantly, the French retained Canada, which at this time was the Valley of
the St. Lawrence River, the heartland of the French empire in North America
Ile St.-Jean; Ile Royale
Also retained Ile St.-Jean and Ile Royale
This is particularly important because following the Treaty of Utrecht (which
dramatically limited the authority of New France itself) the French begin to
construct a mighty fortress on Ile Royale, coming to be known as Louisbourg
In addition to being a fortress, Louisbourg would come to serve as an important
centre of economic activity
Serves as a major obstacle to the political and economic designs of the British, who
want to be the dominant imperial power in the area
The Flowering of New France
New France & War
Emerges in the 18
th century as a fundamentally military society
The people of New France were in a state of near constant warfare both with
Aboriginal groups (particularly the Five Nations) and Anglo-American colonists
As a result, a myth of New Frances Heroic Age emerged, a time where Frances men
were going out to colonize and improve the colony, risking their lives against the
blood-thirsty Five Nations, conveniently omitting the fact that the French along with
the Algonquian would raid the Five Nations and kill them
New Frances agricultural development was stifled as a result of hostile between the
Five Nations
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