oversee their imperial activities
•Under Champlain leadership France begins to construct buildings. Drawing on an
Aboriginal term for “narrowing of the waters,” Champlain names this settlement
•Capital for developing French Empire
•The French asserted their legal sovereignty over this territory based on Cartier’s
expeditions, based on the precedent of the erection of the cross; however, the
Aboriginal people who inhabited this territory did not recognize French
sovereignty, and thought they were the rightful owners over this land.
•They allowed the French to occupy this land due to trade, and warfare. As a result
of trade networks, Aboriginals had increasingly begun to dependent on
manufactured goods. They also believed the Europeans could help them in the
struggle with their Iroquoians speaking rivals (5 nations).
•Dependence was a two way street (MUTAL RELIANCE). The French were
equally if not more dependent on the Aboriginals. They needed these people, as
they were the ones capturing and skinning the animals for their fur industry. Also,
the French relied on Aboriginals for indigenous knowledge. They helped the
French to survive in harsh North American environment, provided technologies
such as toboggans and snowshoes, access to canoes, etc.
•This relationship (co-dependent relationship) would intensify in the years to
come. It would result in a fateful military encounter involving Champlain and a
variety of Aboriginal groups.
•1609: The French led by Champlain agreed to participate in a military conflict
between the two groups (algonquins, and 5 nations). It takes place in Quebec City,
near a lake, which had never been seen. Champlain exhibiting curiousity and
arrogance calls the lake after himself. Champlain deployed their muskets and used
them against the Mo’hawk nation. HE travels behind on foot as the battle is
occurring. At the last moment, they part. In front of him are the members of the 5
nations, and he unloads. Because members were clustered together, he was able to
kill several individuals (including chiefs) with one stroke. As a result, the nature
of warfare changes quite traumatically. Before the introduction of firearms,
Aboriginals would armour themselves with wood. These were good at protecting
themselves from arrows. Also, the tactic of clustering is no longer good. Instead,
they adopted ‘gorilla warfare tactics’ (unconventional attacks).
•Essentially refers to what he wanted to accomplish in New France.
•Notion that one day, New France, would rival and possible even surpass France
itself (the mother country, in terms of wealth, population, military, and political
•This vision has two essential inter-related components:
1. Economic: recognize the fur trade as the essential vehicle to allow this imperial
presence to flourish.
2. Religious: morality’ projecting Christian ideals as widely as possible in Northern