Clash of Empires
I. Imperial Rivalry
1689-1713: the ‘first round’
Treaty of Utrecht
•Brings to an end the War of the Spanish Succession
•During negotiations, France consolidates its influences in its empires; but, in
exchange there were obliged to make major concessions in North America (3):
under the auspices of the Treaty, France gives up all claims to the territory of
Newfoundland, gives up all territory surrounding Hudson’s Bay, renounce their
claim to Acadia (small but gradually population in North Eastern North America).
In effect, they renounce their claim to the province of Nova Scotia, which was
considered the region of Acadia. This region, officially recognized as Nova Scotia
•This cession would have a tremendous impact on the French-speaking people.
They now found themselves under the authority of an English speaking empire.
•Despite major concessions, these diplomatic changes did not mean that all was
lost for New France. Most importantly, the French retain what was commonly
known as ‘Canada” (the valley of the St. Lawrence river). They also retain to Ile
St.-Jean (modern day P.E.I), and Ile Royale (modern day Cape Breton Island)
•Following treaty, the French begin to construct a mighty fortress on the island of
Ile Royale. It is named after French monarch, and becomes Louisbourg. It is
militaly important, but there is also an economic dimension.
•It serves as a major optical to the political and economic designs of the British in
the North Atlantic world. Essentially, Louisbourg stands in their way from
II. The Flowering of New France (after 1713)
New France and War
•Emerges as a fundamentally military society
•The people of New France were in a state of near constant warfare with
Aboriginal groups (5 nations), and Anglo-American colonists
•Agricultural development was stunned.
•Militia system was developed. They are citizen soldiers, all men between 16-60
are required to participated to defend colony from attack. Vigorous involvement,
draws attention away from developing the colonial economy.
•As warfare subsides, NF experiences an age of unprecedented growth
•In it emerges infrastructure projects, and industries
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