economy and society in mid-19thC BNA
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Economy and Society
I. ‘The Great Unraveling’
The ‘fiery fifties’:
•Following series of progressive irravelments.
•Supporters are making a case for responsible government
•Characterized by co-operation between Canada east and west
•50’s characterized not by compromise, but of tension, animosity, and rivalry –
collapse of co-operation.
•East (Fontaine and Bawldwin) is critizes by a group knows as the rouges. They
derive, energy and inspiration from revolutionary movements in France. They are
always in a minority to propel into a government position.
•West – threat to the east.
‘Clear grites’; group opposed to the east, led by George Brown (businessmen and
politician). They wanted more change in constitutional development and evolution.
‘rep. by pop.’: demanded representation by population. Canadian census of 1851 revealed
that the population of Canada west was larger than that of the east. Moreover, it was
growing at a faster rate, as a result of continued transatatic British migration
More people thus, should mean more representation. They were upset that there was
Emergence of political deadlock
•Inability to get anything done politically speaking
•John A. Macdonald; G.-E Cartier (partner to Macdonald)
•State of affairs that brown in the clear grites party is dominating.
•Forge this partnership – unified province
•It is impossible for either of these two groups to gain any political stability
•Cartier is dominate figure in east, and Macdonald dominate in west
•French English partnership forged. They cannot develop sufficient support to
maintain stable authority
•Key players are Brown and Macdonald, with Cartier following behind.
Differences between Brown and Macdonald are overwhelming. Brown is
opinionated, stubborn and quarrelsome. Macdonald is open to compromise and
II. Religious Developments
•Although Protestant, grites were also Evangelicals
•Present especially in the West
•7 characteristics (3 major): Biblicism (a belief that the Bible is true – the written
word of God. It is not an epic narrative. Can include fundamentalism: what is said
in that text is precisely true and accurate), conversion (the idea that they undergo
a spontaneous conversion experience, which involves by being confronted by
ones own sinfulness – powerful conversion experience), activism (religious
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