HIS263Y1 Lecture Notes - Dalton Mccarthy, Clifford Sifton, Henri Bourassa

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6 Apr 2012
Wilfred Laurier and Canadian Politics
Louis Riel Revisited
Anglo-Protestant vs Franco-Catholic
Martyr vs Father of Manitoba --- the Metis were disturbed as a wounded tortured soul ---
then as a Father of Confederation --- conflict of memory
1885 - what does Riel mean for Canada?
Growing Divisions
Tensions between English and French in 1885
Protestant Canada saw Riel's execution as fitting punishment for his crimes
Protestants saw Riel as the Riel who shot Scott
French Catholics saw him as insane and his hanging was an injustice
1 - Fundamental Cultural Cleavage in Confederation, 2 - Local Issues Become National
Issues, 3- Cultural Issues Become Political Issues
Riel was only one of the language religion politics issues
Manitoba Schools Crisis
o 1890 -Manitoba eliminated funding for bilingual and Catholic Schools
o Catholics were less than 10% of Manitoba's population because settlers from
Ontario moved in - settled the West
o Catholics don’t have the political power anymore
o Became national issue - education is a provincial responsibility, but the BNA Act
gives Federal power to protect religious minorities
o Can pass remedial legislation
o French Canadian politicians liked Confed to give Quebec enough autonomy - control
of education, marriage etc - saw Confed in terms if Quebec - "French Canada" was
just Quebec to them --- they eventually would support French Catholics outside
o Quebec came up with a new idea of Confederation - it was a "bi-cultural compact"
between two founding peoples and that they had rights across the country by 1900
it is common sense in Quebec
o Henri Bourassa - idea of cultural duality - this is the dominant idea of Quebec in
Canada - by this time Quebec is thinking of a French Canada including other groups
"French and in English in all its parts as well as its whole"
o Anglo-Canada -is believing in a monolithic culture based on British imperialism
D'Alton McCarthy
o Late 1880s - Equal Rights Association - believes Catholic Schools are too privelaged
Orange Order
o Irish Protestants fiercely loyal to the Crown, very influential movement - believe
Catholic schools have no place
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