HIS263Y1 Lecture Notes - Infant Mortality, Typhoid Fever, Eugenics

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6 Apr 2012
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Age of Light, Soap and Water
Age of Reform
Ida Whipple
o 17 yr old highschool student in New Brunswick
o Won a prize for an essay on civic improvement
o Combined local observations
o Mundane, average example
o 1910 - middle of an age of reform movements
1880s to 1920s was the Age of Reform
Many groups were organizing to deal with issues "Age of Organization"
o Lots of Reform!
o Most reformers were eclectic in interest
These people existed in a sphere of international ideals
Most reformers were WASP - middle class
o Protestant and Catholic reform are largely separate trajectories
o Social position shaped the way they understood the problems
o Core of reform were ideas like Christianity, patriarchal family, expertise, and anxiety
about immigration
Reformers saw this not as a series of little projects but as an effort to regenerate souls
and society
Settlement Houses
Urban institutions that tried to deal with the problems of incoming immigrants
Idea imported from Britain and the US
Spreads to most cities in Canada
o Hull House in Chicago (Jane Adams)
o All People's Mission (Winnipeg)
J.S. Woodsworth
4 key functions typical of settlement houses
Immigrant Aid - charity functions, giving clothes, functions like social
work
Recreation - like an aid and community centre, tried to send poor
immigrants into the woods for a restorative way, swimming pools,
gyms
Missionary Work - Christian institutions usually, but usually a certain
religion of The Social Gospel - Christians ought to do God's work on Earth,
the job of the Christian was not to save the souls of others but to do good
work on Earth - deep belief - key animating principal to this age of
reform - Social Catholicism also exists and the Pope sends out notice for
Catholics to partake in reform
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