september 23

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9 Apr 2011
School
Department
Course
September 23, 2010
HIS 263Y1
Off ice Hours: Thursday 3-4, SS3059- McKim
Christianity, Commerce & the Development of New France
1.)Jacques Cartiers Voyages
Staking Frances claim
Iroquoians and Algonquians
oEncounters Cartier west of his travels
Mi’kmaq first peoples that Cartier encounters
1534 voyage-the French kidnapped two sons of an Iroquois chief, Donnacona
oTaken back to France-through the sons, the French would be able to learn more
about indigenous societies and they could exploit them as guides for future
voyages
Kingdom of the Saguenay-rich empire that lay to the west of the St. Lawrence
oRichly endowed with precious metals (i.e. deposits of copper which they took to
be a precious metal)
oAccording to Donnacona-chief of the Iroquois
Three motivations-commerce, Christianity, competition
1535-Cartier sails up the St. Lawrence-the natural f low is outward
oSails to a village called Stadacona-home of Donnacona and his sons
oCatholics were celebrating the festival of St. Lawrence-Cartier named the r iver
after that Saint
oThe Iroquois referred to their homeland as Canada-meant the cluster of homes in
one particular area-Cartier understood the word to mean the broader ter r itor y
occupied by these indigenous peoples
Change reflects an ideological imperialism
Cartier signaled that he took for granted the r ight of imperial powers to
assert authority over t he natives
oSpent the winter in Canada
oOutbreak among Cartiers crew of scur vy-25 men died
Eventually the French were exposed to a cure from the Aboriginals
Use of the bark and brew of white cedar trees
oThey t ake several more Natives into captivity to be exploited-including
Donnacona
Cartier promised them that they would see their homes again-none of
these Abor iginals would survive to be brought to their traditional
homelands
1541-third voyage-br ings 150 people-objective was to set up a permanent year-round
colony
o35 were killed by Aboriginal peoples
oCartier traveled freely between different tribes without consent
oFrance neglects its imperial ambitions in N. America for abou t 50 years thereafter
oWestern Chr istianity is ripped into two groups-Protestants and Catholics
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