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Mc Kim/ Penfold

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Early European Exploration
The new framework for studying history represents a shift away from the views of
the nation-state as the unit of analysis towards the Atlantic ocean as the unit of
analysis This framework takes into account all four continents that touch on the
Atlantic: Europe, Africa, and the Americas
The Atlantic as a highway that allows for activity between the continents (trans-
Atlantic activity) such as trading networks, migration networks, disease network,
ideology network
Atlantic World is the name of this framework, concentrating on the early-modern
period (roughly 1500 1800), an era of early exploration, the end of this period
marks the rise of the nation-state
Leif Erikisson: Vinland
The Viking Age 9th to 12th centuries, The Scandinavians were the mariners of the
world, Skill on the seas, fearsome capacity for war.
Sets out to explore Greenlands south
He arrives in 1000 AD, at an attractive location (boasting relatively mild climate)
dubbing it Vinland (Wine Land), There is debate as to where Vinland is, but
there is evidence that it was the NE tip of Newfoundland
In 1960, Archaeologists come across evidence of an old Norse settlement in the NE
Newfoundland, thought to confirm this hypothesis
For the next 500 years, the Norse would make frequent journeys to this areaFor
Interacted and possibly engaged in trade with Aboriginal North Americans
It is unclear which groups the Norsemen interacted with their trips to this area
declined during the 13-15th centuries
One factor contributing to this decline is a temporary cooling of the Earths

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temperature, making it more difficult to settle Greenland, 1450: Norse expeditions
came to an end
Beothuk: aboriginals that interacted with Vikings.
Early Modern Europena Explorations
Spain, Portugal, England, and France would replace the Norse as the Atlantic
Factors 1. Rivalry: competition between these powers
2. Commerce: Trade. Into the mid-16thcentury, it was widely believed that
by travelling westward, a route to the Indies (Modern South and East Asia)
3. Religion: Religious fervour spurs these European powers to convert
Christianity throughout the world
Christopher Columbus, an Italian, was funded by the Spanish crown, News of
Columbus’ successful voyage reached monarchs of other European states
Giovannie Caboto (John Cabot)
Henry VII of England hires John Cabot to participate in a transatlantic voyage
Cabot reaches land, a New Found Land, in June 1497, now modern Newfoundland
Cabot was struck by the rich concentration of cod fish off the eastern coast of
Newfoundland in the Grand Banks
Grand Banks:
The waters here are unusually shallow for the Atlantic Ocean, resulting it a great
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