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Lecture 2

Course Code
Kenneth Mills

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History of Quebec Lecture 2 January 16, 2012
-1960s Quebec singer-songwriter culture, folk revival but also different
in its own political trajectories
-explosion of political expression and thought
1. emergence of the modern separatist movement, the idea Quebec
should extract itself from Canadian confederation
2. industrialization, Anglophones dominated the prestigious jobs,
capitals spoke English, labourers spoke French
-relationship to industrial labour is absolutely central
3. roman catholic church in Quebec society, implementation of the
church over the education system, catholic society, many began to
argue that it was necessary to break out from the shackles of
confederation to development more than a secular society and to
overcome and transform that particular kind of labour
-political movement that emerged challenged confederation,
construction of work and helped to transform Quebec’s artistic culture
-1867 Quebec’s entrance to Canadian confederation
Book review:
-half summary
-half your own critic, where the book fails, strengths and weaknesses
-review the Canadian historical review and look at some of the reviews
made on your book
July 1st 1867:
-act of British parliament brought the Dominion of Canada into
-many challenges and contestations
-the incredible durability of Canadian Confederation, this confederation
bringing different colonies together into political structure
-doesn’t represent the same mythology as found in countries such as
France and the US
-founding mythology has never had a very serious hold
Lord Durham:
-arrival of Lord Durham to Canada who came as a representative of the
British government investigated political troubles and created a report,
cast a shadow over Quebec political life, for him French Canada had no
culture or history and believed French Canadians needed to be
assimilated, the drive for cultural survival remains extremely strong

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-created a detailed response to Lord Durham’s insulting report
Act of Union:
-upper and lower Canada became united in a single legislature and
each were given 42 seats
-those in Canada east (Quebec) had a much larger population where as
Canada W had over 400 000, Quebec had over 600 000
-English became the only language of government
-the debt of the two different colonies became shared, however upper
Canada had a far greater debt than lower Canada
-Population began to shift for Anglophones, with waves of immigration
to Canada W (Ontario)
-English had a disproportionate representation
-many wanted representation by population, people thought the
political framework didn’t work anymore, transportation links were
being built, the economy was developing, many began talking about
the potential of bringing the British colonies together, act of union
became unacceptable, many began to think that confederation would
dilute Quebec’s power and would be a disadvantage for Quebec
-Quebec would be granted exclusive jurisdiction over certain areas, it
was a way of getting out of the political structure that bounded them
to Canada W., gained control over their own legislation/jurisdiction
George Etienne Cartier (1814):
-aftermath of the rebellions, was charged with treason, fled to US
-eventually he was granted amnesty and was allowed to return
-involved in a variety of politics in Quebec
-was the leader of the “Blues”, a conservative political party, moderate
nationalism, believed in the power of the catholic clergy and had a
deep respect for private property
-Montreal politician, spoke English and French
-known as the father of confederation
-scandal involving the CPR ended his career
-Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were considering re-uniting together
-lead to Charlottetown conference of 1864, American civil war raged,
worries of invasions, US repealed reciprocity and purchased Alaska in
-G.B. was eager for some sort of union
-potential for trade on an east and west axis
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