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HIS344Y1 Lecture Notes - Central Powers, Kurse, Archduke Franz Ferdinand Of Austria

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Ebba Kurt

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HIS344Y – Conflict and Cooperation in the International System since 1945
Cold War left an imprint on everything in the world – cultural, social, economic development
were all influenced (permeated every aspect of life)
1648 – Treaty of Westphalia, birth of modern international relations
prevent another catastrophe as the Thirty Year War
understanding that every state looks after its own – primary objective of the state is survival
this is not to say that states would not try to undermine the treaty – as soon as they are
signed states would try to circumvent
balance of power ensured that no state would become the hegemon – Treaty of Utrecht
in practice this did not work too well – nationality did not matter, what mattered was territory
and economy, lands were given or taken away to maintain BOP
French Revolution rallying cry was liberalism and nationalism – was a double-edged sword,
since now all nationalities demanded a state of its own
developed post-Napoleonic alliance systems to prevent hegemony of a single state
Napoleon III's plan to break apart the Quadruple Alliance and Holy Alliance backfired, allowed
the unification of Germany and Italy – France ended up the greatest loser in this manipulation
Germany wanted recognition that they were the greatest power
Germany picked a fight with GB, caused GB to ally with French and Russia
Nue Kurse – confrontation with GB, French and eventually Russia
Welt Politik
compelled both sides to form alliances
Triple Entente vs. Central Powers – conflict was looming by end of nineteenth century
catalyst was again the Balkans – assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand
Austria was the weakest of the great powers but they were the ones who compelled
Germany to fight – pre-emptive strike to prevent powers to fully militarized
Germans were planning all along for war, exploited the conflict
Schlieffen Plan – picked a fight with the French
what saved the world and democracy was the entrance of US in April 1917 that tipped the
scales back to the Triple Entente – resources of US and supplied allies
1919 – trying to settle affairs of Europe and recreate balance of power, Treaty of Versailles
Americans walked out of this, left GB and France to deal with Germany (neither felt they
were able to control the Germans)
Germans were humiliated, wanted revenge – financial crisis in the 30's allowed small fringe
parties to come to power, the Nazis and Hitler
Americans and Russians
Grand Alliance binding USSR and US
what mattered was the defeat of greatest threat to humankind – the Nazi regime
peace treaty that started in 1945, negotiations between USSR and US, Japan was still fighting
US – some criticized Roosevelt of handing over too much to USSR
analysts calculated that to defeat Japan the US had to sacrifice a million lives – no president
would ever do that, had to compromise with Stalin
Stalin agreed to create UN, security council would include US, GB and France, but USSR
would also have a seat and Eastern Europe would be under USSR sphere of influence
USSR thought they got too little from this deal, US criticized for giving too much
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