HIS344Y1 Lecture Notes - Fat Man, Chinese Civil War, Nuclear Warfare

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USSR wanted a united Germany to better extract economic recuperation
no unified Germany, agricultural east belonging to Soviet Union, the rich industrialized and
potentially very powerful west controlled by the Western powers
May 1946 - Americans terminated economic aid to Western Germany because USSR would not
feed the west Germans with agriculture of east Germany
elections in Germany - great losses for the United Party (communists), completely dashing
hopes of USSR, did not see the advantages of belonging to the eastern bloc
did not Stalin-ize east Germany, saw a complete defeat of the communist party
Moscow's fear was always that if Germany was able to regain pre-war economic status would
become a menace against the USSR who was economically weak still from WWII
did not allow free elections in east Germany
October 1947 – Americans so hell-bent on holding onto their own part of divided Germany that
there would be no basis of any compromise with the Soviets
wanted to keep Germany divided – ongoing negotiations between British and Americans to
unite their zones and create bi-zonia
Marshall plan was already in action, European economic recovery would never happen
without German economic recovery – under no circumstances would they accept any Soviet
concession
Molotov - “whatever happens to Berlin happens to Germany, whatever happens to Germany
happens to Europe”
i.e. if Berlin is divided, so is Germany divided, and so is Europe divided
two more efforts to settle the issue – Moscow Consul of Foreign Ministers and another in
London at the end of the year
at Moscow, would have agreed to have a unified Germany under the Allies treated as a
single economic unit, allow a Weimar Republic-like government set up
Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan in effect in Europe, no way that Americans would
back down – would rather uphold West Germany and secure Western interests
economic recuperation of western Europe with West Germany
economic growth of Europe through west Germany
last consul of foreign ministers, Russians made one more effort to settle the issue – but now this
is much too late, Tri-zonia established by uniting GB, French and American zones
would not accept any Russian concession
Russians were so outraged they committed one of the greatest diplomatic blunders –
stormed out from the meetings as if the meeting would not continue without their presence
of course this was not the case, Tri-Zonia was created, Western powers went a step
further and tried to make Tri-Zonia a viable state by introducing the Deutchmark as the
currency of West Germany
at this point Russians had to retaliate, stop the Western powers from uniting West Germany and
bring the West back to the negotiation table
two-pronged approach – coercion and negotiation
Western officials prohibited from visiting West Berlin
approached French with their vision of how to divide Germany to make it weak (French
always terrified of a united and strong Germany), would support French vision
reparations, reopening issue of borders of Russia/Poland/East Germany
at this point Americans were so convinced that this was the correct policy that they would not
budge, French did not want to back down since Marshall Plan was providing so much more aid
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