Containment & Confrontation
- early 1946, Truman no longer care what the Soviets think of the Americans. We can tailor our policy to
please the Russians.
-> American attitude reinforced because of Soviet actions in 1946
-> Feb t July 1946
1) Turkey: Potsdam Conference. Soviets wanted bases established in Turkey to preserve
national interests. They wanted clear access to the Straits. This was a threat to Turkey
1) wants Kars as a province. Kars was lost to Turkey.
2) Ardahan. Turkey was a neutral state during second world war but a haven for
Nazi activities -> German spies
3) to revisit 1936 Montreal Convention t was an amendment to the Straits
which gave free hand to Turkey who determines which state is allowed to pass
through the Straits. Russians wanted a say and supervision over the Straits and
free access to the Mediterranean.
-> Turkey refused, but Stalin military was weaker, so summer 1946, Russians demands
pulled off the table since Russians backed down t they were not strong enough to
attack Turkey. Russia did not want confrontation.
2) Iran: Russians in 1946
1) oil preserves was a crucial interest, esp in 1941. Britain and Russians, in
August 1941, detached forces to invade Iran -> Operation Countenance, even
though Operation Barbarossa was going on. Iran government was supporting
Nazi Germany. Jan 1942 between Iran, Soviet Union and Britain guaranteeing
independent of Iranian state within 6 months after end of war. Russians did not
want this guarantee after. Summer 1946, Russians agree to pull out because not
strong enough for confrontation. From Jan t July 1946, they managed to
establish 2 P}o[s Republic in Iran t Azerbauan and Kurdistan.
- Roosevelt denounced sphere of influence
- Kennan: communism needed to be contained
- Greece was given to Churchill, was placed in the British sphere of influence and Stalin lived up to that
from 1944 to early 1945.