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November 23rd 2010

by OC7

Course Code
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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November 23rd
The Last Berlin Crisis
- Berlin bought all the issues separating Western and Eastern t captitalist and communism
- Berlin itself was divided t division of Europe
- April 1949 t creation of NATO
- 1958, Khrushchev offer disarmament, to turn Berlin into a free city and make sure all foreign
troops pull out
- miscalculated: gave it a deadline and added an ultimatum: or else, if conditions are not
met within 6 months, then Soviet Union would recognize East Germany as a sovereign
state and leave Communist Germans to deal with the situation of Berlin
- Western states knew if they did pull out, it would only be time until Soviet Union
intervene again
- Khrushchev had no success
- to make sure Soviet Union emerge from this dilemma successful and victorious and go to
Moscow/Central Committee to demonstrate he is successful at foreign policy even if things at
home did not work out t made Khrushchev re-evaluate his deadline/dilemma
The La^,µZ_
- Khrushchev decided to show goodwill
- 1958, pull out ultimatum
- Macmillian: revisit issue of West Berlin and reduce Western troops there t had no approval
from US
- Americans unwilling to accept
- the Foreign Office vetoed: USA would never agree to reduction to troops in West
Berlin or concessions over West Berlin
- Sept 1959: Khrushchev arrives in New York
- first of all, he goes to United Nations and sees how political propaganda works
- public statement: disarmament & arms control
- taken to tour in Western parts of United States and given lots of public press
conferences asking about Soviet Union
- U2, implemented since 1954: Russians complained it was violation of invasion of airspace.
They complained in private, never brought the issue to the UN and made it an international
issue and so, the Americans ignored it and continued to spy on Soviet Union
- May 1st t Workers Day: fight for right of working class
- CIA decided to fly a plane from Pakistan (where one of the U2 sites were) over Russian
missile site and bring back the results
- U2 flight path to skirt anti-missile batteries
- Soviet Union tracked the planes before they even crossed the Russian holiday.
- U2 had to fly over a missile site and Soviet Union fired some missiles, but they missed
- U2 so fragile, they actually broke a wing and it went down, but Soviet Union did not
- Gary Powers survived t pilots were instructed to commit suicide if they fall in Soviet
- Russian missiles bought down their own fighter plane
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