January 25th 2011
Other Regional Conflicts
The Western Hemisphere
- the Cuban missile crisis underscored the region for America
- when America experts looked over Latin America, they found conditions suitable to similar
- Latin America could go the Cuban way t conditions were really bad and did not need Soviet
intervention for it to happen
- Latin America expected reward, very specifically the same type of reward Europe received, but
did not happen
- Zoo]v(}W}P[Wîì]oo]}v}oo]}>]vu]t Latin America would need to
come up with another 20 billion for it to work
- the minute standard of living improved, jobs for ordinary people offered, etc. t no need for
them to see a social transformation/Social takeover
- Kennedy also hoped that by offering all these aid, Latin America would stay in the American
sphere of influence
- none of these came through
- Latin America is not Europe. Even though Europe was destroyed in WWII, they had the
basis for it, but Latain America did not have this
- no viable middle class to push for reforms or economic development and no elites.
- about 18 billion of the 20 billion were never matched by Latin American, the
dictatorships only wanted the handout t they pocketed the money, nothing reached the
lower part of society so poverty remained
- the same American companies who had profited in Latin America claimed in
Washington also took out tremendous profits, so nothing was left to build up Latin
- the alliance did not achieve its objectives
- prone to spread of Marxist and Communist t this was a seriously concern
- Johnson still kept the program but was disinterested in it t disappointed in Latin
America state, their inability to help themselves. He was also obsessed with Vietnam.
- Mann developed American policy regarding Latin America
- from 1964 on, the US would not really care what sort of government is in power in
Latin America t whether it is democratic or dictatorial t as long as it offered regional
stability and dependability t protecting American interests and against the Communists
- American kept hold of Panama Canal for next 20 years
- March 1964, in Brazil, there was a military coup, overthrowing the democratic President, but
America offered military and economic assistance and cooperation as long as that regime
remained anti-Communist and cut off the Soviet
- Brazil had wanted to establish an economic union with Soviet
- 1963/1964, US pressured Britain to not to grant independence to Guyana.
- The Dominican Crisis: close to Cuba
- agreed to get rid of Trujillo
- free democratic election in 1962, the individual who came to power in the election of
December 1962 was Bosch t democratic, pro-western individual, but also wanted to
initiate social reforms t improve peasantry conditions t dejavu of Guyana and Cuba
- }µ[U}ZÁ}ÀZ}ÁvvoÇowho understood nothing of
running a state, he was a businessman and he followed American instructions.
- by April 1965, Cabral resigned and this meant a possibility for Bosch to come back and
turn Dominican Republic more to the Left.
- Despite promises by Roosevelt (good neighbourhood policy), in late April 1965,
American marines land in Dominican Republic and take over the entire state.
- this is the same time period when the escalation took place in Vietnam
- US only came up with 58 Communist names and half of them were in jail, another few
were in exile t could not take part in Communist rebellion, and several were repetitions.
- gave image, not only Vietnam but also Latin America, undermining their own
- Vietnam: a report if South Vietnam would be under North Vietnam, there would be a domino
effect and South East Asia would fall to the Communist t this was totally erroneous calculation
even though Vietnam does get united and Communists do get taken over
- The domino theory never came through
- Indonesia, recently freed from Dutch colonialism.
- Sukarno was able to stay in power and played the anti-colony card successfully. As long as he
represented himself in nationalist colours, Indonesia stayed an independent state. He received
modern equipment from the Soviet but kept ties open with Kennedy administration. He played
- Britain have lost its strong points and its only strategic location was Singapore. It was an
importance for them to project their world power status in Singapore t show up against Soviet
Union and America. However in financial terms, it became extremely expensive. In 1961/1962,
Britain could no longer finance it.
- to allow Singapore full independence. Singapore was dominated by Chinese inhabitants and
this was a serious concern. Britain was worried the Chinese inhabitants would align themselves
with Communist China t add strength to Mao.
- ]]v[ovÁµv]DoÇ]t unify Malay peninsula and this would create a new state
and new ethnic composition of the state, the Malay would be 40/40 with Chinese. Equally
importantly, the Malay wanted equality with Chinese. They were willingly to foot the bill with
- Late 1962/early 1964, they agreed on this union/plan.
- Indonesia/Sukarno did not agree. He played the role of the leader in South East Asia and
fighter against colonialism. He could never agree to this creation. North Borneo was also
claimed by the Philippines t being Western allies, members of the SEATO.
- three way competition between Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia
- ZZ<}v(}v][t attacks against Malaysia
- Philippines pulled out quickly as soon as US promised military aid