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Lecture

Feb 08

by OC7

Department
History
Course Code
HIS344Y1
Professor
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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Détente in Decline Part I
The Rethinking of Détente
- Jackson-Vanik Amendment worked against the long-term interest of the United
States
- as Kissinger predicted, it had a tremendous backlash
- Kissinger shut Russia out from Middle East, which humiliated Russia
- Jan 1975, the Russians scrapped their deal with US for their domestic interest
- 1973, 35,000 allowed to emigrate from Russia
- cut down to 13,000 after the deal was shut down
- both sides found problems with tente
The Carter Administration
- 1976, Carter, a democrat, was elected
- incoherent and misguided foreign policy
- Carter placed too much emphasis on ideology and moral issues and ethical issues
and pretty much gave up Kissingers politics
- he did not have a straight/stable foreign policy, he was also indecisive the
Secretary of State and Security Advisor
- he was caught up between these 2 individuals and never made his decisions
in time
- Jan 1977, Carter declared his commitment to human rights and support for
tente
- but at times, contradictory this came through foreign policy
- holding onto détente this meant US and Russia could build on SALT, which had
shortcomings
- by supporting human rights, this went against the grain of Soviet Union
- Carter increased funding for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty bombarding
Eastern Europe and Russia
- he supported Russia emigration, etc. and offering protection for Sakharov
hydrogen bomb maker who criticized Soviet Unions policy and was exiled
- another critic of the Soviet Union system, Alexander Solzhenitsyn
- first one who came out and criticize the Stalin system and introduced to the
West- heavily penalized
- called Stalin the moustache one
- went to Gulag
- America offered him housing, etc. and he was shocked
- he supported Orlov, a self-appointed monitor of Soviet Unions human rights
- he was sent to jail for a lengthy jail
- Africa: eastern type of Africa Somalia and Ethiopia
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- Somalia: went through a revolution in early 70s and turned
socialist/communist. Extreme financial aid from Soviet Union. Became proxy state
of Soviet Union
- extension to Ethiopia, became socialist/communist state too
- The Ogaden War: Soviet Union sided with Ethiopia, along with Cuba. Soviet Union
provided military aid and Cubans offered manpower, etc.
- 1978: pushed Somalians out of the Ogaden dessert
- this was seen as a demonstrate of Soviet Unions efforts to undermine the
West and the United States
- they thought Cuba was just a puppet of Soviet Union
The Mid-East Peace Process
- UN Resolution 242: gave Israel what they wanted security
- Israel would not give territory they gained since 1967, which was
unacceptable to Arabs
- not acceptable to Iraelis, because it involved the Palestinian issue and land
they gained
- stalemate
- all hopes on Kissinger
- US policy not cleared on what to do with Israel
- Carter declared Israel must have defensible borders
- none of the Arab states accepted the speech
- Israel as well, because he said the Palestinians must find a home
- Geneva Conference:
- discussion issues not agreed
- not willing to sit down with PLO (sole representative of Palestinians)
- the United States not adamant to push for that conference
- Sadat Initiative (Nov 9th)
- for the first time and Arab leader uttered the words openly we are ready to
leave in permanent peace with you with Israel
- recognize the right of Israel to exist
- one condition: the peace must be a fair settlement to both sides
- no discussion of a homeland for Palestinians
- Kissinger traveled 5 times to middle east trying to push the entire issue forward
and trying to find a compromise between the two sides.
- the first tangible state between Arabs and Israel
- the armies were separated
- Sadat was seen as a betrayer
- betraying interests of Palestinians and citizens of those states he presented
- 1978, no land for Palestinians
- 1981, he was assassinated
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