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The Post Cold War World

Course Code
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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The Post Cold War World 11-03-15 7:26 PM
The Implosion Of Eastern Europe
-the End of the Cold War in the Third World
like Angola and Cambodia
-reduced super power tension
-however the united States not convinced that the Cold War Over (Bush
although tension reduced in the third world…the cold war mentality
was still very much alive
-in Europe, the tension, confrontation and division remained the same
-Warsaw pact renewed after Gorbachev came to power
shows that Gorbachev himself never thought the Cold War would
end there
and that the division of Europe would continue
-there was a recognition among kremlinogists that reforms would come
but neither foresaw the rapid collapse of the communist system as
it happened in the late 80s
the assumption that the Soviet Union would continue to fight for its
territorial interests…preventing a change in the makeup of soviet
-B. Scowcroft
“US policy not the catalyst” of the collapse of the Soviet Union
-Gorbachevs Perestroika (The restructuring)
not clear what Gorbachev had intended by the perestroika and if
this were his initial plan (or if he just got carried away)
-Gorbachev disliked the Soviet commitment to Eastern Europe
therefore he did not feel the same way over Eastern Europe as the
Third World
clearly expressed by 1988!the Brezhnev doctrine is out (allowing
Russia to use military force to sustain the socialist system)
-Gorbachev doctrine out, “Sinatra Doctrinein
the idea of “doing it my way
Allow the Eastern European states freedom over their political and
economic systems…
o Allow for a better standard of living

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o Only then did Bush see the possibility of the Cold War
dismantled…(b/c he was ready to give up eastern Europe)
-Eastern european states took advantage of this
Allow for the first multi-candidate elections (not necessarily multi-
party elections…)
A step forward but the essence of a communist system would still
o However the polish people didnt fall for this…about 40%
approved, and even less participated
-by 88, Polish guys hand forced, had to enter into negotiations with the
Catholic Church and the Solidarity movement
Solidarity eventually legalized
And an agreement for free-elections
-obvs the polish elections were a disaster for the Communist Party
overwhelming success for the Solidarity
basically polish society as a whole generally rejected communism
and a socialist system
-the Hungarian Sieve
also followed the path of Poland
kicked out their Communist leader, replaced him with a “socialist”
o even this was seen as too mild
by 1989, on the verge of becoming a non-communist government
May 1989, opening up of the borders…border to Austria
o A gate into western Europe
o Eastern Germans really took advantage of this (Hungary was
the “Highway to Freedom”)
" Could travel to Eastern Europe but not eh West
" This led to an international crisis
" Eastern German leader complained a lot to Hungary and
Gorbachev, but Gorbachev did not respond to the
-East Germany
The focal point
The fall of the wall

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o Doomed the regime
o German reunification was pretty much inevitable at this point
The Velvet Revolution
Headed by the playwright Vaclav Havel , head of Charter 77
Established a true and legitimate democracy
-What made it possible for these states to turn around?
Communism itself an alien ideology!imposed from above so no
popular support and thus no legitimacy
o thus as soon as the Brezhnev doctrine was phased out…the
system was bound to fall
Gorbachev did not care about Eastern Europe!Saw them as a drain
on Soviet resources
o Merely trying to cut his losses (soviet union itself struggling
for survival
-the first serious sign that the Cold War was ending
The German Unification
-once the wall fall, reunification was understood
left to be decided!Scale, scope, speed
-Chancellor Helmut Kohl adamant on reunification
however intended a peaceful reunification
-worried that the Easter gERMANS would flee towards the West in
hundreds/thousands and thus would undermine the West german
economic/social system
wanted to ensure stability in both parts before a final and successful
-therefore both Kohl and Bush insisted reunification should be done on
Western terms
Gorbachev kind of annoyed by this…argued that once East and West
Germany would be reunified, then they should be free of NATO (or
be a part of both Warsaw Pact AND NATO)
o Obvs kohl and bush were like lol no
-Kohls ten point plan to incorporate East Germany
promised an economic and monetary union but on a gradual base
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