March 22nd

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23 Mar 2011
Pax Americana
The New World Order
- capitalism succeeded
- everyone saw that capitalism as an alternative ideology came to an end.
- third world conflicts and tensions came to an end
- nationalist liberation movements came to an end
- communism ideology/Soviet Union/Eastern European/Warsaw Pact ended
- meant a crucial development in international relations, an unprecedented problem
- was a 45 year long conflict necessary?
- could this new world order be established without going through the tension and
conflict and risk of nuclear showdown?
- West: looking at the economic assistance, given the economic powers and
technological superiority and western type democracy and clearly, a much healthier
society, the Cold War should have come to an end by the end of WWII.
- comparing society of United States to Soviet, tremendous differences can be
- technological and scientific breakthroughs postponed the end of the Cold War
- Soviet Union progress
- but it was a huge illusion
- Communist society did not have the basis to do
- but it did give another 3 decades to the Cold War
- it wasnt the technological or military breakthrough of the Soviet Union but rather,
regional nationalistic aspirations that gave Russians, and Moscow, an illusion that
they may be able to undermine the United States and the West in general, under
the regional conflicts
- exaggerated fears in United States also contributed to the prolonged Cold War
- historian: history came to an end
- ideological conflicts came to an end
- only capitalism remained, there would never be a similar situation in the
- as it turned out, he was somewhat off the mark
- ideological conflicts still form part of international relations
- Bush: The New World Order (Summer, 1990)
- promoting to fight against Saddam Hussein
- a new ideology based on capitalism given the fact that they just won Cold
War- capitalism in economic terms, western democratic values in ideological
terms and liberal perception of international problems
- Liberal perception of international problems: offer freedom to expression, religion,
trade and so on. In addition, value human rights and stands up for human rights.
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- all the former members of the Warsaw Pact to transform and accept Western
democracy and free market turning into capitalist states
Enforcing the New World Order
- Iran-Iraq War: root cause came hand in hand with the Iranian revolution
- Saddam Hussein thought he could capitalize on the conflict
- October 1980, launched a war to regain territories lost by Iraq and get a
better hold of oil supply, and thus, increase his own profit
- role of US in this conflict was crucial, Americans helped both not trusting
Saddam Hussein and the Iranian revolutions
- they thought to prolong the conflict and weaken both
- war came to an end in 1988, Saddam Hussein pressed issues
- Iraq was in debt, 80 billion in debt
- Arab states only offered a verbal support
- Hussein decided to target Kuwait oil rich neighbor, who had offered
financial aid but not stepped up
- late July 1990, Hussein visited the American ambassador, April Glaspie, and
asked what the US would think if he pressed charges against Kuwait
- her answer was green light
- internal Arab matters are Arab matters, Washington United States had
nothing to do with it, it was up to Hussein to decide
- the minute, he received the go ahead, he invaded Kuwait which had no
- August 9th 1990, he annexed Kuwait, made part of Iraq
- thereafter, he started pressing his financial requests against Saudi Arabia
did not pay her contribution in the Iran-Iraq war
- Hussein argued he reduced the threat of a rising religion
- at least ¼ of the world/oil flow was in Husseins hand
- Western Europe and US
- challenged American world order
- the minute Hussein realized US had a problem, he did offer to pull out
- showed how unrealistic and how badly he judged American action
- he put conditions: Saudi Arabia to pay up
- naturally, US ignored that
- The Carter Doctrine: wish for US to stand up for that region (initially, Soviet
Union, but now, to Hussein as well)
- Hussein did threaten the Western world/US with the mother of all battles
- he did not have the means
- Operation Desert Storm: for 6 weeks, they bombarded his military assets and
weakened his air defenses, allowing American ground defenses to start, late Feb,
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